Lay summary
Time’ is often equated with modern technical “clock time.” Sociology and social psychology, on the other hand, set mechanical measurement of time in relation to subjective experience of time, in other words to “social time.”’ Although devoted to the consumer’s perspective, organizations normally invest exclusively in objective time management. This project aims to help remedy the situation  influencing waiting behavior and experience by applying the “temporal know-how” of art and the social sciences. It investigates the influence of temporary artistic transformations of selected waiting rooms on individual waiting experience such as waiting stress  and waiting behavior both of customers and service providers. Based on assumptions about the perception of art (e.g., still lifes), the effects of ‘action-oriented’ versus ‘observation-oriented’ artistic interventions will be explored in a waiting area of a public authority and a hospital emergency waiting room. Contrary to current information centered  types of waiting management, the form of artistic intervention will be oriented to the basic principle of appealing to all the senses. It will comprise visual, acoustic, tactile/haptic and olfactory elements (fragrance management). The “observation-oriented” artistic spatial intervention will be implemented by means of contemplative video works, complementary ornamentation, relaxing fragrances and a corresponding seating design. For the “action- oriented” spatial intervention, measures promoting communication and “stimulating object and surface design” are planned, coupled with a subliminally stimulating fragrance environment. Initially, waiting behavior and waiting experience will be measured in the waiting rooms via short exit-interviews, interviews among the service staff and observation during seven half days of the pre-intervention calendar week. Furthermore medical stress data are collected. Immediately thereafter, the artistic intervention/room transformation package 1 (‘action-oriented’) will be implemented and during the following calendar week, a second measurement of the effect/observation of the impact will be undertaken in the altered waiting rooms. Subsequently, the artistic intervention/room transformation package 2 (“observation oriented’) will be performed and a third measurement will be taken the following week. The evaluation will be carried out by means of social-scientific methods, the main results of which will be analyzed in an interdisciplinary focus group consisting of the entire project team, external artists and social scientists, as well as representatives of the organization involved in the project.