Edgar Wind (1900-1971) is a major figure who undertook to connect history of art and history of culture in a new way, yet within a tradition defined by Jacob Burckhardt, but especially by Aby Warburg. The young Wind was a friend of Warburg, and he worked at the KBW, Warburg's famous library and research center in Hambourg, now the Warburg Institute in London. Wind became the first professor in the history of art at Oxford University. Edgar Wind's Raphael papers have never been published; their author had planned a major book that would have focussed on Raphael's School of Athens (Vatican palace, Stanza della Segnatura), but due to illness, it was left incomplete after he died in Oxford.The project is geared towards the scientific publication of some of the essays written for this book, and for which we have manuscripts nearly finished manuscripts. This publication shall be prefaced with a long historiographical essay on the complex constitution of the very "image" of the Renaissance in the Nineteenth century - an image which owes much to the interpretation of Raphael's School of Athens as an allegorical representation of the Renaissance itself in its philosophical and historical dimensions. We shall also pay much attention to the fact that Edgar Wind's contemporaries made extensive use of documentary photographs to study art. This use was not neutral, and entailed great aprioris on the notion of historical or art-historical data.