Modelling; Inventory & documentation (synthetic overview); Effects of climate change on karst aquifers; Water resource assessment; Water reserve; Karst groundwater; Sustainable management
Ballesteros Daniel, Malard Arnauld, Jeannin Pierre-Yves, Jiménez-Sánchez M, García-Sansegundo J, Meléndez M, Sendra G (2013), Geometría y direcciones de flujo de agua subterránea preliminares de acuíferos kársticos mediante el método KARSYS. Picos de Europa, Norte de España, in Berrezueta E & Domínguez-Cuesta M J (ed.), 51-60.
Turk Janez, Malard Arnauld, Jeannin Pierre-Yves, Vouillamoz Jonathan, Petrič Metka, Gabrovšek Franci, Slabe Tadej, Viršek Ravbar Nataša, Masini Jean (2013), Interpretation of hydrogeological functioning of a high karst plateau using the KARSYS approach: the case of Trovsko-Banjška planota (Slovenia), in Acta Carsologica
, 42(1), 61-74.
Vouillamoz Jonathan, Malard Arnauld, Schwab-Rouge Gabrielle, Weber Eric, Jeannin Pierre-Yves (2013), Mapping flood related hazards in karst using KARSYS approach. Application to the Beuchire-Creugenat karst system (Ju, Switzerland), in 13th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental impact of karst
, Carlsbad, New Mexico.
Weber Eric, Jeannin Pierre Yves, Malard Arnauld, Vouillamoz Jonathan, Jordan Frederic (2012), A pragmatic simulation of karst spring discharge with semidistributed models. Advantages and limits for assessing the effect of climate change, in Actes du 13e Congrès National de Spéléologie, Muotathal, Suisse. 29 sept au 01 oct 2012
Malard Arnauld, Vouillamoz Jonathan, Weber Eric, Jeannin Pierre Yves (2012), Swisskarst Project – toward a sustainable management of karst water in Switzerland. Application to the Bernese Jura, in Actes du 13e Congrès National de Spéléologie, Muotathal, Suisse. 29 sept au 01 oct 2012
, Muotathal (Switzerland).
Demary Sabrina, Vouillamoz Jonathan, Eichenberger Urs, Weber Eric, Jeannin Pierre Yves (2011), Identification Cards of karst systems as tools for a sustainable management of karst systems, in H2Karst, 9th Conference on Limestone Hydrogeology, Besançon (France) 1-4 sep. 2011
, 115-118, 115-118.
Vouillamoz Jonathan, Jeannin Pierre Yves, Demary Sabrina, Weber Eric, Malard Arnauld, Eichenberger Urs (2011), KARSYS, un concept de caractérisation des systèmes karstiques pour une gestion durable des ressources en eau, in H2Karst, 9th Conference on Limestone Hydrogeology, Besançon (France) 1-4 sep. 2011
, 475-478, 475-478.
Weber Eric, Jordan Frederic, Jeannin Pierre Yves, Vouillamoz Jonathan, Eichenberger Urs, Malard Arnauld (2011), Swisskarst project (NRP61): Towards a pragmatic simulation of karst spring discharge with conceptual semi-distributed model. The Flims case study (Eastern Swiss Alps), in H2Karst, 9th Conference on Limestone Hydrogeology, Besançon (France) 1-4 sep. 2011
, 483-486, 483-486.
Malard Arnauld, Jeannin Pierre-Yves, Sinreich Michael, Weber Eric, Vouillamoz Jonathan, Eichenberger Urs, ) Praxisorientierter Ansatz zur Kartographischen Darstellung von Karst-Grundwasserressourcen - Erfahrungen aus dem Swisskarst Projekt, in Grundwasser – Zeitschrift der Fachsektion Hydrogeologie
Jeannin Pierre-Yves, Karst hydrogeology, in Saied Eslamian editor (ed.), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group , Boca Raton, Florida, 379-406.
Jeannin Pierre Yves, Eichenberger Urs, Sinreich Michael, Vouillamoz Jonathan, Malard Arnauld, Weber Eric, KARSYS: a pragmatic approach to karst hydrogeological system conceptualisation. Assessment of groundwater reserves and resources in Switzerland, in Environmental Earth Sciences
Over about 20% of Switzerland most streams are subterraneous and mainly unknown. Their water catchment areas and main characteristics are unknown too. Those hydrological systems, namely karst, behave in an intermediate way between surface water and groundwater. Being underground karst water is considered as groundwater and represents nearly 50 % of the total groundwater resources in Switzerland and not less than 80 to 90 % of the exploitable reserve (MBN 2008). With about 120 km3 of exploitable groundwater karst represents a volume which can be compared to the total volume of all natural swiss lakes and more than twice that of glaciers (Spreafico & Weingartner 2005). The annual resource is about 6 to 8 km3, from which only a very tiny portion (1 to 3 %) is exploited. Water vulnerability to various kinds of pollutions remains a limit for the exploitation of karst waters as drinking-water supply, although this vulnerability tends to be overestimated (at least over a large part of the year). Assuming a global and adequate management, karst water resources could potentially provide enough water to face drinking water problems through drought periods, such as observed in 2003. On the opposite karst could, under certain conditions, be used to dampen extreme floods. In any case it is primordial to avoid that constructions (e.g. tunnels) enhance the flashy character of flood events in karst regions (e.g. Tunnel Umfahrung Flims, ISSKA 2008).If general characteristics of karst aquifers are "well" known, their regional characterization is poorly documented and it is very difficult to sketch a synthetic overview of this resource at this point. Our Society will have to face many challenges along the next decades and the exploitation of karst waters will not be restricted to drinking water, but will enlarge to hydropower, heat production, irrigation, etc. Considering the significance of karst aquifers (as resource and reserve) in Switzerland, it is hardly possible to think about an integrated and sustainable management of waters in Switzerland without a significant improvement of the documentation of those systems.Therefore, the first step towards a sustainable management of karstwater resources in Switzerland is to characterize karst at a national scale. This is the aim of the proposed project. This includes an inventory including maps establishement and an applied documentation of all the main karstic systems in our country.The method proposed for the NRP 61 encloses 5 steps:1)Inventory and documentation of all major karstic systems in Switzerland. For this work information about karst springs will be analyzed and compared to potential water catchment areas. Preliminary work is already available.2)Geological information about each main aquifer will be collected and synthesized into a 3D geological model describing the geometry of the carbonate aquifer.3)Based on points 1 and 2 the position and the geometry of the karst phreatic zones will be defined in 3D for all major karst systems. The volume of the groundwater reserve as well as the “theoretical” boundaries of the water catchment area will be evaluated and synthesized in maps and 3D-views.4)Data derived from the model will be compared to other hydrogeological available data (discharge rates, tracing experiment, water chemistry, etc.). The geometry of the model will be adjusted if necessary to match the required precision at the considered scale.5)An ID card of every main karst system in Switzerland will be edited. The card will include basic information (see example in the detailed research plan). The content of this card will be adjusted to aims and requirements of other partners of PNR61 and to water agencies (cantons and Bund). It will also consider the following potential users-conflicts or interactions: drinking water supply, hydropower production, artificial snow, irrigation, tourism development, urbanization, thermal exploitation, agriculture, impacts, future evolution. A bibliography enclosing published and unpublished work will be included in each ID card.A series of maps and 3D models covering all major karst systems of Switzerland will result from this part of the project. Some field works will be necessary mainly in order to validate discharge rates estimated from the available literature and to fix some uncertainties. We mainly work wit a GIS tool for the construction of the karst-related database. Links with 3D models will have to be established/developed.Results are expected to be posted on a web-site (www.swisskarst.ch). There will possibly be two levels of access (one for the public and one for administrations).Deliverables of this part of the project will include:•A zoomable map of Switzerland with all main karst springs and their water catchment areas. By clicking on the object a window will open the identity card of each system (see below).•Related maps with the major tracing experiments and typical karst features (swallowholes, poljés, dolines, caves, etc.)•If several karst aquifers are superimposed, a separate map of each with isolines of their basis and top, with indications of the extension of phreatic zones (artesian/free), with the expected major flowpaths, with indications on boundary conditions.•A 3D model of selected systems with the same indications.•An “identity card” of every main karst system in Switzerland with the basic information on this system including at least the following parameters: System name, names of the respective springs, catchment surface area, total minimum discharge, total maximum discharge, total average discharge, the annual outflow (resource), the groundwater volume (reserve), expected heads, regime type, particularities (see also the attached example). All these indicators should be comparable from one system (or aquifer) to another.The documentation issued from the project will also include syntheses on available knowledge about the following aspects: 1)Modelling karst hydrology, including karst-specific characteristics and behaviour. 2)Evaluation of the future hydrologic evolution of karst water resources and of the response of karst systems to extreme events (extreme floods and droughts). 3)Evaluation of the water quality, its suspected evolution, threats and management.Within the framework of the proposed project it will not be possible to cover all these three aspects in great details and for all karst systems in Switzerland. Therefore these aspects should be expanded afterwards and/or in parallel projects (within or outside NRP-61) in order to provide methods and tools specifically dedicated to the management of karst systems.