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Tolerance, Intolerance and Discrimination Regarding Religion

English title Tolerance, Intolerance and Discrimination Regarding Religion
Applicant Maurer Christian
Number 163751
Funding scheme SNSF Professorships
Research institution Section de Philosophie Faculté des Lettres Université de Lausanne
Institution of higher education University of Lausanne - LA
Main discipline Philosophy
Start/End 01.08.2016 - 30.04.2021
Approved amount 1'234'556.00
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All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
Philosophy
General history (without pre-and early history)
Religious studies, Theology

Keywords (10)

Political philosophy; Moral philosophy; Reformed Theology; Religion; History of philosophy; Discrimination; Intolerance; Tolerance; Enlightenment; Early modern period

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
La tolérance n’est ni facile, ni incontestée : elle est l’attitude complexe que nous adoptons envers certaines choses qui nous déplaisent (pour de bonnes raisons), mais que nous acceptons néanmoins (pour des raisons encore plus importants, telles que la paix, la liberté, la justice). Dans l’histoire européenne, surtout après la Réforme, la notion de tolérance occupe une place centrale dans de nombreux débats portant sur des questions religieuses, morales, politiques et sociales.
Lay summary
Le présent projet, qui s’inscrit en philosophie branche principale, aborde tout d’abord des sources modernes rarement étudiées pour leur traitement de la tolérance à l’égard de la religion. L’axe historique comprend trois sous-projets. Le premier analyse les traités sur la tolérance entre les religions, écrits par le fameux théologien et philosophe genevois Jean-Alphonse Turrettini (1671-1737). Le deuxième sous-projet étudie les arguments pour et contre la tolérance dans des sources écossaises du 17ème siècle. Le troisième sous-projet analyse des textes britanniques du 18ème siècle, tout en décrivant la réception des écrits de Turrettini. L’axe systématique du projet met en rapport les débats historiques sur la tolérance avec des questions plus actuelles, notamment les débats à propos de la discrimination.

Le projet contribue à une meilleure compréhension d’une thématique qui est régulièrement objet de l’actualité. Il rend accessible des sources peu étudiées, entre autre des sources suisses importantes et du matériel latin non traduit. Les approches sont souvent interdisciplinaires et les collaborations internationales renforcent la visibilité du projet et de ses résultats.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 10.05.2016

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
On the power of natural reason: a transcript and commentary of two letters from John Simson to Archibald Campbell in 1736
Maurer Christian (2021), On the power of natural reason: a transcript and commentary of two letters from John Simson to Archibald Campbell in 1736, in History of European Ideas, 47(4), 561-572.
Tolerance, Love, and Justice
Maurer Christian (2021), Tolerance, Love, and Justice, in Kühler Michael, Fedock Rachel, Rosenhagen Raja (ed.), Routledge, London, 150-166.
Christian tolerance and tolerance of the Christians: Natural law and conscience in James Dundas’s Idea Philosophiae Moralis (1679)
Gellera Giovanni (2020), Christian tolerance and tolerance of the Christians: Natural law and conscience in James Dundas’s Idea Philosophiae Moralis (1679), in Global Intellectual History, 5(2), 171-190.
Contexts of Religious Tolerance: New Perspectives from Early Modern Britain and Beyond
Gellera Giovanni, Maurer Christian (ed.) (2020), Contexts of Religious Tolerance: New Perspectives from Early Modern Britain and Beyond, Taylor and Francis, London.
Human Nature, the Passions and the Fall: Themes from Seventeenth-Century Scottish Moral Philosophy and the Philosophy of Religion
Maurer Christian (2020), Human Nature, the Passions and the Fall: Themes from Seventeenth-Century Scottish Moral Philosophy and the Philosophy of Religion, in Broadie Alexander (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 174-190.
Introduction: Contexts of Religious Tolerance: New Perspectives from Early Modern Britain and Beyond
Maurer Christian, Gellera Giovanni (2020), Introduction: Contexts of Religious Tolerance: New Perspectives from Early Modern Britain and Beyond, in Global Intellectual History, 5(2), 125-136.
Reformed Scholasticism in Its Relation to Seventeenth-Century Scottish philosophy
Gellera Giovanni (2020), Reformed Scholasticism in Its Relation to Seventeenth-Century Scottish philosophy, in Broadie Alexander (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 94-110.
'The Grievances from Toleration': Scotland Heading Towards the Enlightenment
Maurer Christian (2020), 'The Grievances from Toleration': Scotland Heading Towards the Enlightenment, in Global Intellectual History, 5(2), 247-263.
Archibald Campbell et le Committee for Purity of Doctrine. La définition de l’orthodoxie dans l’Église presbytérienne au début des Lumières écossaises
Maurer Christian (2019), Archibald Campbell et le Committee for Purity of Doctrine. La définition de l’orthodoxie dans l’Église presbytérienne au début des Lumières écossaises, in Recous Noémie, Krumenacker Yves (ed.), Classiques Garnier, Paris, 59-74.
Early Enlightenment Shifts. Simson, Campbell, and Leechman
Maurer Christian (2019), Early Enlightenment Shifts. Simson, Campbell, and Leechman, in Elliott Mark, Fergusson David (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 42-55.
James Dundas (c. 1620-1679) et Charles II. Tolérance religieuse, liberté de conscience et limites de la souveraineté
Gellera Giovanni (2019), James Dundas (c. 1620-1679) et Charles II. Tolérance religieuse, liberté de conscience et limites de la souveraineté, in Krumenacker Yves, Recous Noémie (ed.), Classiques Garnier, Paris, 39-58.
Pride Aside: James Dundas as a Stoic Christian
Gellera Giovanni (2019), Pride Aside: James Dundas as a Stoic Christian, in Journal of Scottish Philosophy, 17(2), 157-174.
Sixteenth-century philosophy and theology after John Mair
Gellera Giovanni (2019), Sixteenth-century philosophy and theology after John Mair, in Fergusson David, Elliot Mark (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 109-123.
Francis Hutcheson
Maurer Christian (2018), Francis Hutcheson, in Copenhaver Rebecca, Crane Tim (ed.), Routledge, London, New York, online-online.
A lapsu corruptus – Calvinist Doctrines and Seventeenth-Century Scottish Theses ethicæ
Maurer Christian (2017), A lapsu corruptus – Calvinist Doctrines and Seventeenth-Century Scottish Theses ethicæ, in History of Universities, (2), 188-209.
Archibald Campbell
Maurer Christian (2017), Archibald Campbell, in Copenhaver Rebecca, Crane Tim (ed.), Routledge, London, New York, online-online.
English Philosophers and Scottish Academic Philosophy (1660-1700)
Gellera Giovanni (2017), English Philosophers and Scottish Academic Philosophy (1660-1700), in Journal of Scottish Philosophy, 15(2), 213-231.
The Doctrine of the Fall in Seventeenth-Century Reformed Scholasticism: Philosophy between Faith and Scepticism
Gellera Giovanni (2017), The Doctrine of the Fall in Seventeenth-Century Reformed Scholasticism: Philosophy between Faith and Scepticism, in Larkin Aine, Hadromi-Allouche Zohar (ed.), Routledge, New York, 78-89.
The Scottish Faculties of Arts and Cartesianism (1650-1700)
Gellera Giovanni (2017), The Scottish Faculties of Arts and Cartesianism (1650-1700), in History of Universities, (2), 166-187.
Francis Hutcheson: A System of Moral Philosophy
Maurer Christian, Haakonssen Knud (ed.), Francis Hutcheson: A System of Moral Philosophy, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis.
Logic and Epistemology in Seventeenth-Century Scotland
GelleraGiovanni, Logic and Epistemology in Seventeenth-Century Scotland, in Broadie Alexander (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 000-000.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
University of Glasgow, School of Humanities, A. Broadie Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Edinburgh, History Department, T. Ahnert Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Princeton Theological Seminary, G. Graham United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris-1, UFR philosophie, L. Jaffro France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Geneva, Institut d'histoire de la réforme, M.-C. Pitassi Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Lausanne, various departments, S. Zurbuchen & B. Kapossy Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Pardubice, Centre for Ethics Czech Republic (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
ZHAW Winterthur, Zentrum für Sozialrecht, Non Discrimination, T. Naguib Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Berne, various departments, B. Mahlmann & R. King Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of St. Andrews, various departments, Harris, Whatmore, Haakonssen, Elliot Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Fribourg, various departments, J.-C. Wolf & S. Besson Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
New Perspectives on Hutcheson's Moral Philosophy Talk given at a conference ...make men scruple in their consciences: Remarks on a Correction in Hutcheson’s Manuscript of the System 03.06.2021 University of Würzburg, Germany Maurer Christian;
Soutenance d'Habilitation à diriger des recherches Individual talk Imperfections, vices et corruptions: Les faiblesses humaines vues par la philosophie morale moderne et contemporaine 28.09.2020 Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, France Maurer Christian;
Justice et intérêt dans le pensée d'Adam Smith Talk given at a conference Sympathie et "self-love" chez Adam Smith 04.05.2020 Lausanne / Paris (Séminaire zoom), Switzerland Maurer Christian;
Séminaire de recherche IHAR Individual talk Jean-Alphonse Turrettini (1676-1737) et la tolérance 11.03.2020 Lausanne, Switzerland Delacoste (geb. Bezat) Donna;
Refinements of Self-love. A Symposium on 'Self-love, Egoism and the Selfish Hypothesis' Talk given at a conference Lessons and Challenges from Working on 'Self-love, Egoism and the Selfish Hypothesis' 25.01.2020 Paris, France Maurer Christian;
Seminar "Cicero: De finibus" Individual talk Anmerkungen zur Rezeption des Stoizismus in der frühen Neuzeit 12.12.2019 Fribourg, Switzerland Maurer Christian;
Collège des professeurs Individual talk Critiques et défenseurs de la tolérance: Nouvelles perspectives de l'époque moderne 27.11.2019 Lausanne, Switzerland Maurer Christian;
Recognition and Respect in Early Modern Philosophy Talk given at a conference Archibald Campbell’s ‘true self-love’ and the divine economy of esteem 11.07.2019 York University, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Maurer Christian;
Discrimination and Affirmative Action Talk given at a conference Toleration, Discrimination and Affirmative Action: Reaction to Lippert-Rasmussen 21.06.2019 Université de Lausanne, Switzerland Maurer Christian;
BSHP Conference 2019 Talk given at a conference Sympathy for the Hobbes: A Scottish Calvinist Reception of Hobbes in the Manuscript of James Dundas' Idea Philosophiae Moralis (1679) 24.04.2019 London, KCL, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Gellera Giovanni;
Groupe d'étude de l'histoire de la philosophie moderne Individual talk Les auteurs dits "mineurs" 16.04.2019 Université Paris Nanterre, France Maurer Christian;
After Pufenfendorf: Natural Law and the Passions in Germany and Scotland Talk given at a conference From Carmichael to Pufendorf 24.10.2018 University of St. Andrews, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Maurer Christian;
Religiöse Toleranz - Historische Grundlegungen und Praktiken in Europa seit der Reformation Talk given at a conference Schottland auf dem Weg zur Aufklärung - Toleranz und Einheit der Kirche 18.10.2018 Universität Bern, Switzerland Maurer Christian;
On Tolerance and Toleration in 17th- and 18th-Century England and Scotland Talk given at a conference ‘Christian Tolerance’ and ‘Tolerance of the Christians’: Notes on a Theory of Tolerance in James Dundas’s Idea philosophiae moralis (1679) 07.09.2018 Lausanne, Switzerland Gellera Giovanni;
On Tolerance and Toleration in 17th- and 18th-Century England and Scotland Talk given at a conference 'The Grievances From Toleration': Scotland Heading Towards the Enlightenment 07.09.2018 Lausanne, Switzerland Maurer Christian;
Networks of Enlightenment. ECSS annual conference Talk given at a conference Philosophy and Enlightenment 20.07.2018 University of Glasgow, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Gellera Giovanni;
Exégèse et philosophie Talk given at a conference L’interprétation des Épitres aux Romains chez les philosophes et théologiens anglais et écossais des 17ème et 18ème siècles 31.05.2018 Clermont-Ferrand, France Maurer Christian;
Séminaire de recherche en histoire moderne, Université de Lausanne Individual talk La tolérance dans l'Ecosse avant et pendant les Lumières 07.05.2018 Lausanne, Switzerland Maurer Christian; Gellera Giovanni;
The Scottish Tradition: Explaining its Rise, Understanding its Legacy Talk given at a conference 16th and 17th-century Influences on the Scottish Enlightenment 09.03.2018 Princeton, United States of America Maurer Christian;
The Scottish Tradition: Explaining its Rise, Understanding its Legacy Talk given at a conference On the 17th-century Intellectual Roots of 18th-century Philosophy 09.03.2018 Princeton, United States of America Gellera Giovanni;
John Bowlin, "Tolerance among the Virtues" (Meet the author-workshop) Talk given at a conference Response to John Bowlin 05.03.2018 Geneva, Switzerland Maurer Christian;
Studying the Enlightenment. Perspectives from Intellectual History and the History of Philosophy Talk given at a conference On the Tolerance Project 28.10.2017 Université de Lausanne, Switzerland Maurer Christian; Gellera Giovanni;
Existential Philosophy and Literature Talk given at a conference Humiliating, Elevating our Selves 21.09.2017 University of Glasgow, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Maurer Christian;
Existential Philosophy and Literature Talk given at a conference The existential dimension of James Dundas' theory of free will 21.09.2017 University of Glasgow, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Gellera Giovanni;
Philosophy work in progress seminar Individual talk James Dundas on 'lex naturae' 13.09.2017 Université de Lausanne, Switzerland Gellera Giovanni;
Tolérance, liberté de conscience et affaires du consensus Talk given at a conference La théorie des lois naturelles dans les Dissertations sur la théologie naturelle de Jean-Alphonse Turrettini 08.09.2017 Université de Lausanne, Switzerland Delacoste (geb. Bezat) Donna;
Définir l'hétérodoxie dans le protestantisme, entre églises et états (XVIe-XVIIIe s.) Talk given at a conference James Dundas (c.1620-1679) and Charles II: religious tolerance, freedom of conscience, and the limits of the sovereign 30.06.2017 Lyon, France Gellera Giovanni;
Définir l'hétérodoxie dans le protestantisme, entre églises et états (XVIe-XVIIIe s.) Talk given at a conference Archibald Campbell et le « Committee for Purity of Doctrine » : La définition de l’orthodoxie dans l’église presbytérienne écossaise au début des Lumières écossaises 30.06.2017 Lyon, France Maurer Christian;
History of Scottish Theology Talk given at a conference Sixteenth-century philosophy and theology after John Mair 23.06.2017 Edinburgh, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Gellera Giovanni;
Fachschaft Philosophie der Universität Freiburg Individual talk Tolérance et discrimination 01.06.2017 Fribourg, Switzerland Maurer Christian;
Luther et la philosophie Talk given at a conference Luther and Scotus: Human Nature, Free Will and Citizenship 11.05.2017 Geneva, Switzerland Gellera Giovanni;
SSEMP VIII Talk given at a conference Shaftesbury’s Manuscript Pathologia. Stoicism, the Passions and Virtue 10.04.2017 Edinburgh, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Maurer Christian;
Reading Group in the History of Philosophy Individual talk History of Philosophy and Paradigm Theory 08.03.2017 Lausanne, Switzerland Gellera Giovanni;
Les ateliers richesse et vertu Talk given at a conference Quel amour-propre pour quelle activité économique? Nicole, Mandeville et Smith 21.01.2017 Paris, France Maurer Christian;
History of Scottish Theology Talk given at a conference On John Simson's Letters to Archibald Campbell 19.12.2016 Edinburgh, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Maurer Christian;
Conscience Talk given at a conference James Dundas on Conscience 08.12.2016 Berne, Switzerland Gellera Giovanni;
Conscience Talk given at a conference Joseph Butler on Conscience and Self-love 08.12.2016 Berne, Switzerland Maurer Christian;
Reading Group in the History of Philosophy Individual talk ‘Ismer’ – Quelques réflexions sur les -ismes dans l’histoire de la philosophie 09.11.2016 Lausanne, Switzerland Maurer Christian;
Hutcheson: Philosophy and Context Talk given at a conference Hutcheson’s Treatment of Self-love and Benevolence in System I.III 23.09.2016 Lausanne, Switzerland Maurer Christian;
Hutcheson: Philosophy and Context Talk given at a conference The epistemology of "Sense" from Calvin to Hutcheson 23.09.2016 Lausanne, Switzerland Gellera Giovanni;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Discrimination and Affirmative Action 21.06.2019 Université de Lausanne, Switzerland
Comparative History of Philosophy 09.06.2017 Milano, Italy
Hutcheson: Philosophy and Context 23.09.2016 Lausanne, Switzerland

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Portrait EUREKA unil.ch Western Switzerland 2020
Talks/events/exhibitions Aufklärung gegen Religion? Take it easy! Denkanstösse aus der schottischen Aufklärung German-speaking Switzerland 2019
Talks/events/exhibitions Grenzen der Toleranz German-speaking Switzerland 2018
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Website International 2016

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
147813 Archibald Campbell - Philosopher and Theologian at the Beginning of the Scottish Enlightenment 01.09.2013 Advanced Postdoc.Mobility
198902 The Metaphor of Vision in the Virtue of Tolerance 01.05.2021 SNSF Professorships
198902 The Metaphor of Vision in the Virtue of Tolerance 01.05.2021 SNSF Professorships
144942 17th-Century Scottish Philosophy: Translating Latin Sources 01.07.2012 International short research visits

Abstract

This research project on tolerance, intolerance and discrimination regarding religion is in philosophy as the main discipline. It combines two axes: i) The historical core axis aims at reconstructing and evaluating central arguments for and against tolerance from rarely studied early modern Reformed sources at the intersection of philosophy and theology. An interdisciplinary sensitivity is required with respect to, mainly, theology, religious studies and history. The project addresses significant gaps in our knowledge about the 17th and 18th centuries, and about the fundamental intellectual changes which marked the period. Three closely connected subprojects focus on Reformed Switzerland, Scotland and England, on mutual connections and wider European dimensions. Many sources are in Latin, which creates exciting opportunities for new critical editions and translations in addition to argumentative analysis and contextualisation in synoptic articles and in-depth studies. The subprojects are entitled:A) 'Tolerance regarding religion in early 18th-century Reformed Switzerland: Jean-Alphonse Turrettini' (PhD)B) 'Tolerance regarding religion in 17th-century Scottish philosophy and theology' (Post-Doc)C) 'Tolerance regarding religion in 18th-century British philosophy' (Principal Investigator)ii) The systematic axis, with subproject D) 'Systematic questions about tolerance, intolerance and discrimination regarding religion' (PI), aims at refining the conceptual framework in close exchange with the historical axis. It pays attention to the intersection of philosophy and theology and compares early modern and present-day debates on tolerance, describing continuities and differences. It also investigates the rarely discussed connections between the well established philosophical concepts of tolerance and intolerance on the one hand, and the more recent theoretical notion of discrimination on the other hand.Axes i) and ii) are interdependent: Clear concepts are crucial for analysing and evaluating arguments in the history of philosophy, and an awareness of historical dimensions and cultural context is required for an appropriate discussion of systematic contemporary questions about tolerance and discrimination. The project’s scientific originality lies in the focus on rarely studied sources, and on the systematic connections between (in)tolerance and discrimination, which links two discussions which are often kept apart. These points also promise to appeal to a wider public.Amongst the key outputs are a richer narrative of early modern intellectual transformations; synoptic articles and in-depth studies from the subprojects; a PhD on Turrettini; a critical co-edition of Dundas’ manuscript Idea philosophiæ moralis as part of the Post-Doc project; translations and editions, possibly supported by the ‘Digital Humanities’; an international conference on tolerance in early modern philosophy and theology; a public lecture series on tolerance and discrimination; a website promoting the results of the project, etc.
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