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Emotion Dysregulation in Psychopathology: Pathway to an Innovative Neuroconnectivity-Informed Intervention

Applicant Samson Andrea
Number 154937
Funding scheme Ambizione
Research institution Centre Interfacultaire en Sciences Affectives (CISA) Université de Genève
Institution of higher education University of Geneva - GE
Main discipline Psychology
Start/End 01.09.2015 - 31.08.2018
Approved amount 623'133.00
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Keywords (5)

intervention; neural correlates (fMRI); psychopathology; Autism Spectrum Disorder; emotion regulation

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Ziel dieses Forschungsprojektes ist es Emotionen und Emotionsregulation und deren zugrunde liegende neuronale Netzwerke zu verstehen und innovative Interventionen zu testen um Emotionsregulationsprobleme bei Psychopathologien anzugehen.
Lay summary

2. Ziele des Forschungsprojekts

Um Emotionen und Emotionsregulation und deren neuronale Netzwerke in Bezug auf Psychopathologien zu verstehen und zu verbessern, bedient sich das Projekt innovativer Methoden der Affektiven Wissenschaften (Gross, 2014; Gross & Feldman Barret, 2013), wie zum Beispiel experimentelle und neuronale Methoden um Korrelate von Emotionen und Emotionsregulation zu untersuchen.

Ziel der Intervention ist es, mit geeigneten Emotionsregulationsstrategien vor allem positive Emotionen zu erhöhen. Dies soll mit einer innovativen online Intervention bei Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Autismusspektrumstörungen (ASS) und auch gesunden Kontrollprobanden erreicht werden. ASS zeichnen sich durch Defizite im sozial-kommunikativen Bereich, als auch durch erhöhter eingeschränkter und repetitiver Verhaltensweisen aus (APA, 2013). Zusätzlich werden aber auch grosse emotionale Probleme festgestellt, welche auch mit veränderten Gehirnzuständen einhergehen (e.g., Samson et al., 2015). Die online Intervention soll vor allem eine positive Bias in der Verarbeitung emotionaler Stimuli erhöhen, emotionales Bewusstsein optimieren, und die Fähigkeit Emotionen zu regulieren, verbessern. Hierbei wird ein besonderer Schwerpunkt auf kognitive Umbewertung gelegt (siehe Samson et al., 2014, 2015).

3. Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext des Forschungsprojekts

Auf der Basis der Erkenntnisse dieses rigorosen Forschungsprojektes sollen Emotionsregulationsinterventionen für Kinder und Jugendliche mit ASS und anderen Psychopathologien entwickelt und optimiert werden, welche online, aber auch in direkter Interaktion zu Hause oder in Schulen angeboten werden können.

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 28.07.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Depressive symptoms and emotion regulation strategies in children with and without developmental language disorder: a longitudinal studyDepressive symptoms and emotion regulation in DLD
van den Bedem Neeltje P., Dockrell Julie E., van Alphen Petra M., de Rooij Mark, Samson Andrea C., Harjunen Elina L., Rieffe Carolien (2018), Depressive symptoms and emotion regulation strategies in children with and without developmental language disorder: a longitudinal studyDepressive symptoms and emotion regulation in DLD, in International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 1-14.
Facial expression analysis with AFFDEX and FACET: A validation study
Stöckli Sabrina, Schulte-Mecklenbeck Michael, Borer Stefan, Samson Andrea C. (2018), Facial expression analysis with AFFDEX and FACET: A validation study, in Behavior Research Methods, 50(4), 1446-1460.
Emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder: Where we are and where we need to goER in ASD: where we are & where we need to go
Cai Ru Ying, Richdale Amanda L., Uljarević Mirko, Dissanayake Cheryl, Samson Andrea C. (2018), Emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder: Where we are and where we need to goER in ASD: where we are & where we need to go, in Autism Research, 11(7), 962-978.
Positive humor in couples as interpersonal emotion regulation: A dyadic study in everyday life on the mediating role of psychological intimacy.
HornAndrea B., SamsonAndrea C., DebrotAnik, PerrezMeinrad (2018), Positive humor in couples as interpersonal emotion regulation: A dyadic study in everyday life on the mediating role of psychological intimacy., in Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 1-21.
Emotion Regulation Strategies in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review
Schäfer J.Ö., Naumann E., Holmes E.A., Tuschen-Caffier B., Samson A.C. (2017), Emotion Regulation Strategies in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review, in Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(2), 261-276.
Emotional Awareness in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review
Sendzik L., Ö. Schäfer J., C. Samson A., Naumann E., Tuschen-Caffier B. (2017), Emotional Awareness in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review, in Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(4), 687-700.
Expressive Incoherence and Alexithymia in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Costa A.P., Steffgen G., Samson A.C. (2017), Expressive Incoherence and Alexithymia in Autism Spectrum Disorder, in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1-14.
Eliciting positive, negative and mixed emotional states: A film library for affective scientists
Samson A.C., Kreibig S.D., Soderstrom B., Wade A.A., Gross J.J. (2016), Eliciting positive, negative and mixed emotional states: A film library for affective scientists, in Cognition and Emotion, 30(5), 827-856.
White matter structure in the uncinate fasciculus: Implications for socio-affective deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Samson A.C., Dougherty R.F., Lee I.A., Phillips J.M., Gross J.J., Hardan A.Y. (2016), White matter structure in the uncinate fasciculus: Implications for socio-affective deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder, in Psychiatry Research - Neuroimaging, 255, 66-74.
The quartet theory: Implications for autism spectrum disorder
Pehrs Corinna, Samson Andrea C., Gross James J. (2015), The quartet theory: Implications for autism spectrum disorder, in Physics of Life Reviews, 13, 77-79.
Perturbations émotionnelles et leurs remédiations dans le Trouble du Spectre de l’Autisme [Emotional disturbances and their remediation in Autism Spectrum Disorder]
Samson Andrea C., Tornare Elise (2015), Perturbations émotionnelles et leurs remédiations dans le Trouble du Spectre de l’Autisme [Emotional disturbances and their remediation in Autism Spectrum Disorder], in Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l’Enfant, 139, 556-564.
Change in emotional and theory of mind processing in borderline personality disorder: A pilot study
KramerUeli, Kolly W., Pascual-LeoneA, SamsonA. C., SchmittR., BerniniA., AllenbachA., CharbonP., de RotenY., ConusPh., DesplandJ-N., DraganskiB., Change in emotional and theory of mind processing in borderline personality disorder: A pilot study, in Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Stanford University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
MMEF, FPSE, UNIGE, Prof. Rudraufs group Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Gentaz, FPSE, UNIGE Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Luxembourg Luxembourg (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Sander, FPSE, CISA, UNIGE Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
International Summer School in Affective Sciences (ISSAS) 2018, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva Talk given at a conference Workshop: Games to promote emotion development 05.07.2018 Chateau de Bossey, Switzerland Zaharia Alexandra; Samson Andrea;
Oral presentation at the Kongress der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Bildungsforschung (SGBF) und der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Lehrerinnen- und Lehrerbildung (SGL); SBGF/SSRE Talk given at a conference A novel positive emotion regulation training for individuals with autism spectrum disorder and its implications for inclusion enhancement 27.06.2018 ZH, Switzerland Samson Andrea; Zaharia Alexandra;
Colloque de printemps du AESF (Arbeitsgruppe Empirische Sonderpädagogische Forschung) Individual talk Spiele zur Förderung der emotionalen Entwicklung 21.06.2018 FPSE, UniGE, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
21ème Journée de Recherche des Départements de Psychiatrie de Lausanne et de Genève Poster Visual exploration of cute stimuli in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: an eye-tracking study 07.06.2018 Campus Biotech, UniGE, GEneva, Switzerland Zaharia Alexandra; Samson Andrea;
BBL research day Poster Visual exploration of cute stimuli in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: an eye-tracking study 06.06.2018 UniGE, Switzerland Samson Andrea; Zaharia Alexandra;
International Meeting for Autism Research Poster First evidence of the efficacy of a novel positive emotion regulation training in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder 09.05.2018 Rotterdam, Netherlands Zaharia Alexandra; Samson Andrea;
International Meeting for Autism Research Poster Visual attention to cute stimuli in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: an eye-tracking study 09.05.2018 Rotterdam, Netherlands Samson Andrea; Zaharia Alexandra;
RFSM – Secteur de psychiatrie et de psychothérapie pour enfants et adolescents, FNPG – Bereich für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und –psychotherapie Individual talk Emotional Disturbances in Autism Spectrum Disorder - Possible Avenues for Interventions 29.03.2018 RFSM – Secteur de psychiatrie et de psychothérapie pour enfants et adolescents, FNPG – Bereich für K, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
A 2-hour class in David Sander’s yearly course to Bachelor’s students: “Psychologie de l’émotion” Individual talk Emotion reactivity and emotion regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder 12.03.2018 FPSE, UniGE, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Project presentation seminar of the BBL/HNP Individual talk Socio-emotional processes in individuals with developmental disabilities. 05.03.2018 Campus Biotech, University of Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Workshop on well-being, Swiss Lemanic Doctoral School, CISA Individual talk Well-being in disabilities 26.02.2018 CISA, Campus Biotech, University of Geneva, Switzerland, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Annual Research Forum (ARF) of the NCCR Affective Sciences, Campus Biotech, University of Geneva, Switzerland Talk given at a conference Experiential, Behavioral, and Physiological Correlates of Mixed Emotions in Autism Spectrum Disorder 05.02.2018 Campus Biotech, University of Geneva, Switzerland, Switzerland Zaharia Alexandra; Samson Andrea;
Research colloquium, Swiss Distance Learning University, Schweiz, Brig Talk given at a conference Socio-emotional processes in relation to mental health in typical and atypical development 02.02.2018 Brig, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Guest Lecture at the BAP – Expra Congress, University of Luxembourg Individual talk Sense of humor in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder 20.12.2017 University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg Samson Andrea;
Invited Talk at the “Focus on Emotions” research group Individual talk Emotion dysregulation in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder 29.11.2017 Leiden University, Netherlands Samson Andrea;
International Conference on Well-being in Education Systems Talk given at a conference Emotional competences and well-being: Which facets of emotional awareness are linked to various forms of anxiety in 10-13 years old children? 20.11.2017 Locarno, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Invited Talk to the Scientific Afternoons Individual talk Emotion dysregulation in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder 17.11.2017 Department for Special Education, University of Fribourg, Switzerland, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Labmeeting of “The cognitive and affective regulation laboratory” Individual talk Emotion regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder 06.11.2017 Carla Lab, University of Lausanne, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Invited talk Individual talk Samson, A. C. Förderung der Emotionsregulation im Schulalter [Promoting emotion regulation in school]. 28.09.2017 Pädagogische Hochschule St. Gallen PHSG, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Conference of the Swiss Psychological Society (SPS) "Treasuring the Diversity of Psychology" Talk given at a conference Lobel, A., Samson A. C., & Sander, D. Using games to train emotion competencies in schoolchildren Paper presentation at the 15th 04.09.2017 University of Lausanne, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Paper presentation at the 15th Conference of the Swiss Psychological Society (SPS) "Treasuring the Diversity of Psychology" Talk given at a conference Zaharia, A., Schaer, M., Rojanawisut, T., Kojovic, N., Sander, D., & Samson, A. C. Attention of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder towards the baby schema in humans and animals. 04.09.2017 University of Lausanne, Switzerland Samson Andrea; Zaharia Alexandra;
European Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (ESCAP) Talk given at a conference Samson, A. C., Zaharia, A., & Sander, D. Positive emotions in Autism Spectrum Disorder and possible avenues for interventions. Presentation at the symposium “Understanding mechanisms of change in children with ASD who receive intervention 09.07.2017 Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea; Zaharia Alexandra;
Poster at the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), Poster Samson, A. C., Kreibig, S. D., Gross, J. J., Enav, Y., Phillips, J. M., Zaharia, A., & Hardan, A. Y. Experiential behavioral and physiological correlates of mixed emotions in individuals with autism spectrum disorder 10.05.2017 San Francisco, CA, USA, United States of America Zaharia Alexandra; Samson Andrea;
International Convention of Psychological Science (ICPS) Talk given at a conference Beermann, U., Cormenzana, S., Phillips, J. M., Hardan A. Y., Gross, J. J., & Samson, A. C. Positive affect and the ability to laugh at oneself in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder 23.03.2017 Vienna, Austria Samson Andrea;
Annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) Talk given at a conference Kreibig, S. K., Samson, A. C., & Gross, J. J. Undoing mixed feelings: The cognitive regulation of mixed emotional states. 19.01.2017 San Antonio, TX, USA, United States of America Samson Andrea;
Invited talk in the Fortbildungsreihe der Universitätsklinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Individual talk Samson, A. C. Emotionale Reaktivität und Emotionsregulation bei Personen mit Autismus Spektrum Störungen 03.11.2016 Medizinische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, Austria Samson Andrea;
Invited Talk in the Colloquia of the Department of Psychology Individual talk Samson, A. C. Emotionale Reaktivität und Emotionsregulation bei Personen mit Autismus Spektrum Störungen 31.10.2016 University of Innsbruck, Austria, Austria Samson Andrea;
56th Annual Meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research (SPR), Poster Kreibig, S. D., Samson, A. C., & Gross, J. J. Reappraisal with a Twist: Experiential, Behavioral, and Physiological Effects of Emotional Counter-Regulation 21.09.2016 Minneapolis, MN, USA, United States of America Samson Andrea;
56th Annual Meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research (SPR) Poster Kreibig, S. D., Samson, A. C., & Gross, J. J. Undoing mixed feelings: The cognitive regulation of mixed emotional states. 21.09.2016 Minneapolis, MN, USA, United States of America Samson Andrea;
Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Geneva Poster Neural Evidence for Maladaptive Emotion Regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder 26.06.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
The 2nd Jean Piaget Conferences: Infant development from Piaget to today. University of Geneva Poster The role of alexithymia in emotional reactivity and regulation in children with autism spectrum disorder 20.06.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
28th Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science, Chicago, IL, USA Poster Positivity bias in the subjective feeling of mixed affect: But what kind of positivity? 26.05.2016 Chicago, United States of America Samson Andrea;
International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), Baltimore, Maryland, USA Poster Emodiversity in autism spectrum disorder 11.05.2016 Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America Samson Andrea;
Invited talk to the LABNIC labmeeting (Prof. Patrik Vuilleumier). Campus Biotech, University of Geneva Individual talk Emotional disturbances in Autism Spectrum Disorder 28.04.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Invited talk for the Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Bern Individual talk Affective disturbances in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and what every clinician needs to know 07.04.2016 Bern, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Invited talk for the Seminar of the Archives of Jean Piaget, University of Geneva Individual talk Humor in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder 15.03.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Annual Research Forum (ARF) of the NCCR Affective Sciences, Campus Biotech, University of Geneva Talk given at a conference Emotional Disturbances in Autism Spectrum Disorder and a Novel Positive Emotion Regulation Intervention 03.03.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Centre de consultation spécialisé en autism, Office médico-pédagogique (OMP), University of Geneva Individual talk Emotional Disturbances in Autism Spectrum Disorder and a Novel Positive Emotion Regulation Intervention 25.02.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Alpine Brain Imaging Meeting, Champéry Poster Neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal in individuals with autism spectrum disorder 10.01.2016 Champery, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
Invited Talk at the Lunch Time Seminar, Department of Psychology, University of Fribourg Individual talk Emotion reactivity and regulation in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder 22.10.2015 Fribourg, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
workshop on Affective Disorders Individual talk Structural connectivity between orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala: Implications for socio-emotional skills in autism spectrum disorder 29.09.2015 Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
BBL/CIBM Research day, CMU, Geneva Switzerland Poster Structural connectivity between orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala: Implications for socio-emotional skills in autism spectrum disorder 28.09.2015 Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea;
14th congress of the Swiss Psychological Society (SSP/SGP), University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Poster Connectivity Between Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala and Its Association with Socio-Emotional Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder. 08.09.2015 Geneva, Switzerland Samson Andrea;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Workshop of the Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Campus Biotech, University of Geneva 14.02.2017 Chateau de Bossey, Geneva , Switzerland
Sense of humor from an affective science perspective. 06.09.2016 Workshop and Graduate Seminar at the Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Campus Biotech, UNIGE, Switzerland

Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Les émotions: les comprendre et les réguler, Formation Autisme Valais Workshop 29.11.2017 St-Maurice, Switzerland Zaharia Alexandra; Samson Andrea;
Zaharia, A. & Samson, A. C. Interventions sur la régulation des émotions dans les Troubles de Spectre Autistique. Journée d’échanges sur les interventions éducatives en autisme Talk 17.05.2017 à l'EESP Lausanne, Switzerland Zaharia Alexandra; Samson Andrea;
Des émotions positives dans les Trouble de Spectre Autistique. Présentation et ateliers “Les compétences émotionnelles dans les TSA - Soirée-ateliers” – Autisme Valais Talk 30.03.2017 Centre Orif, à Pont-de-la-Morge, Switzerland Samson Andrea; Zaharia Alexandra;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions Semaine du cerveau: Le versant clair et obscur de l’humour et du rire Western Switzerland 2017

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
176722 The Differential Roles of Positive Emotions and Emotion Regulation for Socio-Emotional Processes in Developmental Disabilities: Insights for Future Interventions 01.09.2018 SNSF Professorships
136380 Emotion Reactivity and Regulation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders 01.10.2011 Fellowships for advanced researchers

Abstract

The broad goal of this research project is to better understand emotion dysregulation and its underlying neural circuits in psychopathology, and to discover new pathways to improve emotion regulation in psychiatric disorders. The first part of the proposed work will document emotion dysregulation in one exemplary disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), in contrast to typically developing (TD) participants, while the second part will examine the efficacy of a novel, neuroconnectivity-informed intervention to target emotional dysregulation in ASD. The project will use innovative methods from the affective sciences (Gross, 2014; Gross & Feldman Barrett, 2013), i.e. experimental tasks and tools to study experiential, behavioral, and neural correlates of emotion dysregulation. The proposed project will employ advanced techniques to address the connectivity of neural networks during emotion regulation and at rest to examine the efficacy of the proposed intervention. Individuals with ASD are characterized by severe social and communication deficits, as well as restricted and repetitive behavior (APA, 2013). In addition, there is increasing evidence that individuals with ASD suffer from pronounced emotional disturbances and impairments in emotion regulation (Mazefsky et al., 2013; Samson et al., 2012, in press). Furthermore, the functioning and connectivity of neural networks appear to differ in individuals with ASD compared to TD participants (Belmonte et al., 2004; Dapretto et al., 2005). However, much remains to be learned about the components of emotion regulation that can be effectively targeted in a treatment program, including whether or not it is possible to increase functioning in neural networks involved in emotion regulation of individuals with ASD. Since increasing evidence exists that interventions using computerized tasks to train low-level cognitive and affective processes improve the functioning of the neural network in emotional control in other psychiatric disorders (Gyurak, Chan, Gross, & Etkin, 2013; Fisher, Holland, Merzenich, & Vinogradov, 2009), the main goal of this project is to implement, for the first time, a web-based intervention that directly targets emotion regulation and connectivity in its underlying network in individuals with ASD. This goal will be achieved by instilling emotional bias toward positive stimuli, improving emotion recognition, and reducing resistance to emotional distraction, as well as enhancing working memory, task switching, and resisting interference. To develop a comprehensive testing battery to assess emotion regulation pre- and post-training, established self- and parent-report questionnaires will be used. In addition, since previous studies on emotion reactivity and regulation in individuals with ASD faced the challenge of inducing strong emotions in the lab, innovative tasks relying on idiosyncratic triggers as well as strong emotional film stimuli that are highly self-relevant (Goldin et al., 2013, in press; Ziv, Goldin, Jazaieri, Hahn, & Gross, 2013) will be adapted for the targeted population to test behavioral and neural correlates of emotion regulation. Moreover, previous research has shown that cognitively challenging emotion regulation strategies, such as cognitive reappraisal, are particularly difficult for individuals with ASD (Samson, Phillips, Podell, Hardan, & Gross, 2014a). As a consequence, attentional deployment will be implemented in the tasks, as an alternative strategy to regulate emotions. The project consists of two parts: First, by using innovative experimental tasks, emotion dysregulation in ASD in contrast to TD participants will be documented. Second, in order to improve emotion regulation, a randomized control trial will be conducted in individuals with ASD to compare the effects of an internet-delivered adaptive computerized intervention targeting cognitive and affective functions-and its underlying neural networks-in contrast to computerized control games. Experiential, behavioral and neural correlates of emotion regulation using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) will be assessed both before and after intervention, as well as three months later. Since the computerized intervention aims at targeting functioning and connectivity of the neural network involved in emotion regulation, functional connectivity in networks involved in emotion regulation and at rest will be examined to address the efficacy of the intervention.Building on the findings of this rigorous research project, the ultimate goal lies in developing and optimizing emotion regulation interventions for individuals with ASD and other psychiatric disorders. The proposed intervention has the potential to be particularly beneficial for lower functioning individuals with ASD.
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