Project

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Testing the limits and constraints of species radiations

English title Testing the limits and constraints of species radiations
Applicant Salamin Nicolas
Number 147630
Funding scheme Sinergia
Research institution Département de biologie computationnelle Faculté de biologie et de médecine Université de Lausanne
Institution of higher education University of Lausanne - LA
Main discipline Botany
Start/End 01.06.2014 - 31.12.2017
Approved amount 1'497'570.00
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All Disciplines (4)

Discipline
Botany
Genetics
Environmental Research
Ecology

Keywords (9)

phylogeny; radiations; population genetics; biodiversity; mountainous habitats; evolution; ecology; South America; diversification

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
La répartition de la biodiversité dans le monde est très hétérogène et il existe de nombreux facteurs écologiques et génétiques qui peuvent influencer sa distribution. L'accumulation rapide d'espèces crée des radiations et ceci est à l'origine de la plupart de la biodiversité actuelle. Une des radiations les plus connues est celle des pinsons de Darwin sur les îles Galapagos, qui a contribué au développement de la théorie de l'évolution de Charles Darwin. Malgré cette importance, d'importants aspects des radiations restent peu connus et le projet apporte une contribution afin de mieux comprendre leur origine et déroulement.
Lay summary
Contenu et objectifs du projet

Le projet va combiner les résultats provenant de l'écologie, la génomique des populations et la phylogénie pour déterminer les causes limitant l'origine et l'extension des radiations d'espèces. Les résultats provenant de la phylogénie moléculaire suggèrent qu'après une diversification initiale rapide, les radiations se stabilisent et maintiennent un nombre d'espèce relativement constant grâce à des taux de spéciation et d'extinction d'espèces semblables. Les facteurs impliqués durant cette phase de stabilisation sont peu connus, mais impliquent des causes extrinsèques, comme la capacité de soutien des écosystèmes, ou des causes intrinsèques, comme les mécanismes génétiques liés à la formation de nouvelles espèces. Nous allons étudier dans ce projet les radiations chez les plantes dans sept régions montagneuses différentes d'Amérique du Sud. La réplication des ces radiations sur des montagnes d'âge différent va nous donner des informations importantes d'un point de vue écologique, macro-évolutif et micro-évolutif. La combinaison des ces différents domaines de recherche permettra de tester les hypothèses clés sur les contraintes possibles et les limitations influençant les radiations des plantes.

Contexte scientifique et social du projet

Le but du projet est d'augmenter considérablement notre compréhension des mécanismes responsables de l'origine et de la maintenance de la biodiversité. Il s'inscrit dès lors dans un contexte de recherche fondamentale. Néanmoins, les résultats obtenus pourront potentiellement avoir une influence sur des aspects appliqués liés à la conservation des espèces. Le projet a également une importante part de travail de terrain, qui sera faite en collaboration avec des institutions locales en Amérique du Sud. Celles-ci bénéficieront de cette collaboration scientifique.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 01.04.2014

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Climatologies at high resolution for the earth’s land surface areas
Karger Dirk Nikolaus, Conrad Olaf, Böhner Jürgen, Kawohl Tobias, Kreft Holger, Soria-Auza Rodrigo Wilber, Zimmermann Niklaus E., Linder H. Peter, Kessler Michael (2017), Climatologies at high resolution for the earth’s land surface areas, in Scientific Data, 4, 170122-170122.
Molecular evolutionary rates are not correlated with temperature and latitude in Squamata: an exception to the metabolic theory of ecology?
Rolland Jonathan, Loiseau Oriane, Romiguier Jonathan, Salamin Nicolas (2017), Molecular evolutionary rates are not correlated with temperature and latitude in Squamata: an exception to the metabolic theory of ecology?, in BMC Evolutionary Biology, 16, 95.
Niche width impacts vertebrate diversification
Rolland Jonathan, Salamin Nicolas (2017), Niche width impacts vertebrate diversification, in Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25(10), 1252-1263.
Gene flow and diversification in a species complex of Alcantarea inselberg bromeliads
Lexer Christian, Marthaler Fabienne, Humbert Sarah, Barbara Thelma, de la Harpe Marylaure, Bossolini Eligio, Paris Margot, Martinelli Gustavo, Versieux Leonardo M (2016), Gene flow and diversification in a species complex of Alcantarea inselberg bromeliads, in Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 181(3), 505-520.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Marcus Lehnert, Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Alex Buerkle, Department of Botany, University of Wyoming United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Exchange of personnel
Hugo Navarrete, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador Ecuador (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Fréderic Stauffer, Conservatoire et Jardins Botaniques de Genève Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
María José Sanin, University CES, Medellin, Colombia Colombia (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Gustavo Martinelli, Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro Brazil (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Leonardo Versieux, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte Brazil (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Niklaus Zimmermann, Landscape Dynamics, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Tom Ranker, Department of Botany, University of Hawai'i United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
XIX International Botanical Congress Talk given at a conference Using a NGS approach to explore the macroevolutionary history of a neotropical palm genera 23.07.2017 Shenzhen, China Paris Margot; Rolland Jonathan; Salamin Nicolas; Loiseau Oriane;
European Network of Palm Scientists XVI meeting Talk given at a conference Genomic marker development in Geonoma: a step toward the study of species diversification in neotropical Palms 07.05.2016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Paris Margot; Rolland Jonathan; Loiseau Oriane;
World Palm Symposium Talk given at a conference Diversification of the Geonomateae tribe 22.06.2015 Quindio, Colombia Loiseau Oriane; Rolland Jonathan; Salamin Nicolas;
BromEvo I: First world congress on Bromeliad Evolution Talk given at a conference Speciation genomics and the (dis-) continuum between speciation and radiation in bromeliads 08.03.2015 Porto de Galinhas, Brazil De la Harpe Marylaure; Olivares Ingrid; Kessler Michael; Rolland Jonathan; Weigand Anna; Salamin Nicolas; Lexer Christian; Loiseau Oriane; Paris Margot;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
EUNOPS2017 : European Network of Palm Scientists XVII 06.05.2017 University of Lausanne, Switzerland

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
146906 Unraveling the mechanisms determining the diversity of tropical plant communities: examples from the early diverging land plants 01.11.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)
125240 Spatially Explicit Evolution of Diversity (SPEED) 01.10.2009 Sinergia
165800 Niche structure, dynamics, and coexistence in natural microcosms 01.12.2016 Project funding (Div. I-III)
163428 Modeling phenotypic and genomic changes across evolutionary scales 01.11.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Biological diversity is the result of the evolutionary diversification of phylogenetic lineages, driven by speciation and extinction which in turn are influenced by ecological, biogeographical, and genetic factors. Most of the contemporary biodiversity is the result of radiations, i.e., rapid clade diversification. Although the famous radiation of Galápagos finches contributed to Darwin’s development of the Theory of Evolution, and despite decades of intensive theoretical and empirical research in more recent times, important aspects on radiations remain poorly understood. In particular, the advent of dated phylogenies in the last 20 years suggests that after an initial diversification burst lasting a few to some tens millions of years, radiations achieve a rather constant species number in which speciation and extinction roughly balance each other. The causes determining these limits of radiations are unknown, but may involve extrinsic factors such as the ecological carrying capacity of ecosystems or intrinsic factors such as the ability of clades to expand into new niches (niche conservatism) or population genetic mechanisms affecting species formation, expansion and persistence. In the present project, we propose an innovative research agenda in which we aim to study replicated radiations of four plant groups in seven mountain regions in the continental New World tropics from ecological, macroevolutionary (phylogenetic) and microevolutionary (population genetic) viewpoints. At the core of the project lies an intensive field campaign that will gather a globally unique data set on the spatial distribution of an estimated 300-400 species of four study groups in seven different mountain regions, sampled in a hierarchical manner, yielding the relevant herbarium and laboratory samples for morphological, phylogenetic, and population genetic studies. The integrated nature of the project, with all subprojects referring back to the same field data will allow us to test key hypotheses on possible constraints and limitations of plant radiations in a comprehensive and comparable way, and will thus provide an unprecedented understanding of the mechanisms ultimately responsible for the origin and maintenance of biodiversity.
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