risk assessment; soil pollution; bioavailability; environmental exposure; persistent organic pollutants
Sosa Dayana, Hilber Isabel, Faure Roberto, Bartolomé Nora, Fonseca Osvaldo, Keller Armin, Bucheli Thomas D., Escobar Arturo (2019), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban and semi-urban soils of Havana, Cuba, in Journal of Soils and Sediments
, 19(3), 1328-1341.
Bartolomé Nora, Hilber Isabel, Sosa Dayana, Schulin Rainer, Mayer Philipp, Bucheli Thomas D. (2018), Applying no-depletion equilibrium sampling and full-depletion bioaccessibility extraction to 35 historically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils, in Chemosphere
, 199, 409-416.
Sosa Dayana, Hilber Isabel, Faure Roberto, Bartolomé Nora, Fonseca Osvaldo, Keller Armin, Schwab Peter, Escobar Arturo, Bucheli Thomas D. (2017), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in soils of Mayabeque, Cuba, in Environmental Science and Pollution Research
, 24, 12860-12870.
Hilber I., Bastos A., Loureiro S., Soja G., Marsz A., Cornelissen G., Bucheli T.D. (2017), The different faces of biochar: contamination risk versus remediation tool, in J. Environ. Eng. Landsc.
, 25, 86-104.
Cuba is a country in transition, with exponentially growing population and industrial activities. Such development usually goes along with increasing emissions of pollutants into the environment, and eventually puts environmental and human health at risk. Therefore, and to comply with the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP), the Cuban government established a National Management Plan concerning POPs in the environment. However, suitable monitoring tools to assess environmental and human exposure are not yet established in Cuba, and the National Center for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA) laboratory as one of the leading national institutions lacks knowledge about a robust chemical analysis and efficient sampling strategies.They therefore contacted the Organic Trace Analysis group at Agroscope ART, which has a decade-long experience in quantifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils of the Swiss National Soil Monitoring Network (NABO). Thus, the overarching goal in this Cuban - Swiss r4d project is to set the ground for a Cuban soil monitoring network. To this end, the province of Mayabeque was chosen as a first testing area. Soil sample locations will be identified based on urban to rural gradients, accounting for predominate soil usage, and local climatic conditions. The soil sampling protocol will be adopted from the NABO. The 16 US EPA PAHs and the seven IRMM PCBs will be quantified according to Swiss reference methods as applied by the Swiss partner for the NABO. In addition to total concentrations, bioavailable and bioaccessible fractions, together with crucial soil parameters such as Black Carbon and Total Organic Carbon content, will be quantified. These additional parameters provide improved insight into crucial mechanisms of POP distribution in the environment and contribute to a more appropriate and refined risk assessment to be implemented into future legislation.In case of severe PAHs and/or PCBs contamination, activated carbon and/or biochar will be amended into the soil. By this cost-effective and simple remediation method, exposure will be reduced efficiently and degraded soils will be improved. All together, the Cuban soil monitoring network will serve as a base to (i) inform the Cuban society and the various stakeholders about the quality of their soils, (ii) adapt and restrict soil use according to pollution levels, (iii) initiate measures to protect the soils, and reduce the exposure of human and the environment in general, (iv) provide a measure for the quality of the economic sector, (v) transfer knowledge and build capacity of the researchers and through them other stakeholders, and (vi) provide new, cheap, simple and efficient remediation strategies for highly contaminated soils.