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Terminology and concepts for the characterization of in vivo MR spectroscopy methods and MR spectra: Background and experts' consensus recommendations

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Kreis Roland, Boer Vincent, Choi In-Young, Cudalbu Cristina, Graaf Robin A., Gasparovic Charles, Heerschap Arend, Krššák Martin, Lanz Bernard, Maudsley Andrew A., Meyerspeer Martin, Near Jamie, Öz Gülin, Posse Stefan, Slotboom Johannes, Terpstra Melissa, Tkáč Ivan, Wilson Martin, Bogner Wolfgang,
Project Metabolic Fingerprints from Magnetic Resonance: Levels, Maps, and Microstructure
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal {NMR} in Biomedicine
Publisher Wiley
Page(s) e4347
Title of proceedings {NMR} in Biomedicine
DOI 10.1002/nbm.4347

Open Access

Type of Open Access Publisher (Gold Open Access)


With a 40‐year history of use for in vivo studies, the terminology used to describe the methodology and results of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has grown substantially and is not consistent in many aspects. Given the platform offered by this special issue on advanced MRS methodology, the authors decided to describe many of the implicated terms, to pinpoint differences in their meanings and to suggest specific uses or definitions. This work covers terms used to describe all aspects of MRS, starting from the description of the MR signal and its theoretical basis to acquisition methods, processing and to quantification procedures, as well as terms involved in describing results, for example, those used with regard to aspects of quality, reproducibility or indications of error. The descriptions of the meanings of such terms emerge from the descriptions of the basic concepts involved in MRS methods and examinations. This paper also includes specific suggestions for future use of terms where multiple conventions have emerged or coexisted in the past.