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Associations Between Antiretroviral Treatment and Avascular Bone Necrosis: The Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Bayard Cornelia, Ledergerber Bruno, Flepp Markus, Lecompte Thanh, Moulin Estelle, Hoffmann Matthias, Weber Rainer, Staehelin Cornelia, Di Benedetto Caroline, Fux Christoph A, Tarr Philip E, Hasse Barbara, Hasse Barbara,
Project Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS)
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Open forum infectious diseases
Volume (Issue) 4(4)
Page(s) 177 - 177
Title of proceedings Open forum infectious diseases
DOI 10.1093/ofid/ofx177

Open Access


HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of avascular bone necrosis (AVN). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and particularly protease inhibitors (PI) have been implicated as a risk factor. We aimed to study the associations of ART with the occurrence of AVN among Swiss HIV Cohort Study participants (SHCS). We used incidence density sampling to perform a case control study within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) comparing prospectively collected AVN cases and controls by conditional logistic regression analysis. To evaluate the effect of ART, multivariable models were adjusted for HIV transmission risk group, age, alcohol consumption, use of corticosteroids, CD4 nadir, maximum viral load, and pancreatitis. We compared 74 AVN cases and 145 controls. Associations with AVN were shown for heterosexual HIV acquisition (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-10), alcohol consumption (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.7), and hyperlipidemia (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.4-9.6). After adding ART substances to the multivariable base model, there was evidence of an association for treatment with tenofovir (TDF) >1 year (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.4-14) with AVN. Neither exposure to specific frequently prescribed ART combinations or ART drug classes nor cumulative ART exposure showed any associations with AVN. In the HIV-infected population, a combination of risk factors such as heterosexual HIV acquisition, moderate to severe alcohol intake, and hyperlipidemia seem to contribute to AVN. ART does not seem to be a relevant risk factor for AVN. The association of prolonged TDF exposure with AVN needs to be confirmed.