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Drug Hypersensitivity: How Drugs Stimulate T Cells via Pharmacological Interaction with Immune Receptors

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Publication date 2015
Author Pichler Werner J., Adam Jacqueline, Watkins Stephen, Wuillemin Natascha, Yun James, Yerly Daniel,
Project Investigating the primary immune response against drugs in humans
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Volume (Issue) 168(1)
Page(s) 13 - 24
Title of proceedings International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
DOI 10.1159/000441280

Open Access

URL http://doi.org/10.1159/000441280
Type of Open Access Publisher (Gold Open Access)

Abstract

Small chemicals like drugs tend to bind to proteins via noncovalent bonds, e.g. hydrogen bonds, salt bridges or electrostatic interactions. Some chemicals interact with other molecules than the actual target ligand, representing so-called ‘off-target' activities of drugs. Such interactions are a main cause of adverse side effects to drugs and are normally classified as predictable type A reactions. Detailed analysis of drug-induced immune reactions revealed that off-target activities also affect immune receptors, such as highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigens (HLA) or T cell receptors (TCR). Such drug interactions with immune receptors may lead to T cell stimulation, resulting in clinical symptoms of delayed-type hypersensitivity. They are assigned the ‘pharmacological interaction with immune receptors' (p-i) concept. Analysis of p-i has revealed that drugs bind preferentially or exclusively to distinct HLA molecules (p-i HLA) or to distinct TCR (p-i TCR). P-i reactions differ from ‘conventional' off-target drug reactions as the outcome is not due to the effect on the drug-modified cells themselves, but is the consequence of reactive T cells. Hence, the complex and diverse clinical manifestations of delayed-type hypersensitivity are caused by the functional heterogeneity of T cells. In the abacavir model of p-i HLA, the drug binding to HLA may result in alteration of the presenting peptides. More importantly, the drug binding to HLA generates a drug-modified HLA, which stimulates T cells directly, like an allo-HLA. In the sulfamethoxazole model of p-i TCR, responsive T cells likely require costimulation for full T cell activation. These findings may explain the similarity of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to graft-versus-host disease, and how systemic viral infections increase the risk of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
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