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Contribution of macromolecules to brain 1 H MR spectra: Experts' consensus recommendations

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Cudalbu Cristina, Behar Kevin L., Bhattacharyya Pallab K., Bogner Wolfgang, Borbath Tamas, Graaf Robin A., Gruetter Rolf, Henning Anke, Juchem Christoph, Kreis Roland, Lee Phil, Lei Hongxia, Marjańska Małgorzata, Mekle Ralf, Murali‐Manohar Saipavitra, Považan Michal, Rackayová Veronika, Simicic Dunja, Slotboom Johannes, Soher Brian J., Zenon Starčuk Jr., Starčuková Jana, Tkáč Ivan, Williams Stephen, Wilson Martin, Wright Andrew Martin, Xin Lijing, Mlynárik Vladimír,
Project Translational Non-Invasive Metabolic Studies towards Novel Treatments of Chronic Hepatic Encephalopathy in Developing Brain, from 3D Organotypic Brain Cell Cultures to the In vivo Rat and Human Brain
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal NMR Biomed
Page(s) e4393
Title of proceedings NMR Biomed
DOI 10.1002/nbm.4393


Proton MR spectra of the brain, especially those measured at short and intermediate echo times, contain signals from mobile macromolecules (MM). A description of the main MM is provided in this consensus paper. These broad peaks of MM underlie the narrower peaks of metabolites and often complicate their quantification but they also may have potential importance as biomarkers in specific diseases. Thus, separation of broad MM signals from low molecular weight metabolites enables accurate determination of metabolite concentrations and is of primary interest in many studies. Other studies attempt to understand the origin of the MM spectrum, to decompose it into individual spectral regions or peaks and to use the components of the MM spectrum as markers of various physiological or pathological conditions in biomedical research or clinical practice. The aim of this consensus paper is to provide an overview and some recommendations on how to handle the MM signals in different types of studies together with a list of open issues in the field, which are all summarized at the end of the paper.