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Mental models: a basic concept for human factors design in infection prevention

Type of publication Not peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Review article (non peer-reviewed)
Author Sax Hugo, Clack Lauren,
Project Human Factors Analysis of Infectious Risk Moments
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Review article (non peer-reviewed)

Journal Journal of Hospital Infection
Volume (Issue) 89(4)
Page(s) 335 - 339
Title of proceedings Journal of Hospital Infection
DOI 10.1016/j.jhin.2014.12.008

Open Access

Type of Open Access Repository (Green Open Access)


Much of the effort devoted to promoting better hand hygiene is based on the belief that poor hand hygiene reflects poor motivation. We argue, however, that automatic unconscious behaviour driven by 'mental models' is an important contributor to what actually happens. Mental models are concepts of reality--imaginary, often blurred, and sometimes unstable. Human beings use them to reduce mental load and free up capacity in the conscious mind to focus on deliberate activities. They are pragmatic solutions to the complexity of life. Knowledge of such mental processes helps healthcare designers and clinicians overcome barriers to behavioural change. This article reviews the concept of mental models and considers how it can be used to improve hand hygiene and patient safety.