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MicroRNAs as stress regulators in pancreatic beta cells and diabetes

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Review article (peer-reviewed)
Author LaPierre Mary P., Stoffel Markus,
Project A platform for quantitative genomic single cell analysis
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Review article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Molecular Metabolism
Volume (Issue) 6(9)
Page(s) 1010 - 1023
Title of proceedings Molecular Metabolism
DOI 10.1016/j.molmet.2017.06.020

Open Access

URL http://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2017.06.020
Type of Open Access Publisher (Gold Open Access)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulatory non-coding RNAs that tune cellular responses to physiological perturbations and disease conditions. An increasing body of literature underlines the important roles of miRNA function in pancreatic β-cells in response to metabolic, genetic and inflammatory stress. Lessons from genetic loss- and gain-of-function studies have implicated several highly expressed and evolutionary conserved miRNAs in stress signal modulation, resolution and buffering, thereby forming stabilizing miRNA networks that preserve β-cell differentiation, function, proliferation and cell survival. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review will summarize our current knowledge of how biologically relevant miRNAs regulate stress responses in pancreatic β-cells, discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with using secreted miRNAs as biomarkers and forecast how mechanistic knowledge of miRNA function can be exploited in developing miRNA-based therapeutics. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: miRNAs play important roles in the function, differentiation, proliferation, and survival of pancreatic β-cells. Many miRNA families that are regulated by metabolic, genetic, and inflammatory stressors have been found to coordinate the adaptive responses of β-cells in vivo in conditions such as obesity and diabetes.
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