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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal AIDS
Volume (Issue) 29(14)
Page(s) 1803 - 1810
Title of proceedings AIDS
DOI 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000772


Objective: HIV-positiveindividualshavelowerantibodytiterstoinfluenzavirusesthan HIV-negative individuals, and the benefits of the annual vaccinations are controver- sially discussed. Also, there is no information about the breadth of the antibody response in HIV-infected individuals. Design: The binding and neutralizing antibody titers to various human and nonhuman influenza A virus strain were determined in sera from 146 HIV-infected volunteers: They were compared with those found in 305 randomly selected HIV-negative donors, and put in relation to HIV-specific parameters. Univariable and multivariable regression was used to identify HIV-specific parameters associated with the measured binding and neutralizing activity. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and in-vitro neutralization assays were used to determine the binding and neutralizing antibodiy titers to homo and heterosubtypic influenza A subtypes. Results: WefoundthatbothhomoandheterosubtypicantibodytitersarelowerinHIV- positive individuals. Vaccination promoted higher binding and neutralizing antibody titers to human but not to nonhuman isolates. HIV-induced immune damage (high viral load, low CD4þ T-cell counts, and long untreated disease progression) is associated with impaired homosubtypic responses, but can have beneficial effects on the devel- opment of heterosubtypic antibodies, and an improved ratio of binding to neutralizing antibody titers to homosubtypic isolates. Conclusions: Our results indicate that repetitive vaccinations in HIV-positive individ- uals enhance antibody titers to human isolates. Interestingly, development of antibody titers to conserved heterosubtypic epitopes paradoxically appeared to profit from HIV- induced immune damage, as did the ratio of binding to neutralizing antibodies.