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Jupiter’s evolution with primordial composition gradients

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Vazan Allona, Helled Ravit, Guillot Tristan,
Project Solar and Extrasolar Giant Planets: Formation, Evolution, and Internal Structure
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Astronomy & Astrophysics
Volume (Issue) 610
Page(s) L14 - L14
Title of proceedings Astronomy & Astrophysics
DOI 10.1051/0004-6361/201732522


Recent formation and structure models of Jupiter suggest that the planet can have composition gradients and not be fully convective (adiabatic). This possibility directly affects our understanding of Jupiter's bulk composition and origin. In this Letter we present Jupiter's evolution with a primordial structure consisting of a relatively steep heavy-element gradient of 40 M⊕. We show that for a primordial structure with composition gradients, most of the mixing occurs in the outer part of the gradient during the early evolution (several 107 yr), leading to an adiabatic outer envelope (60% of Jupiter's mass). We find that the composition gradient in the deep interior persists, suggesting that 40% of Jupiter's mass can be non-adiabatic with a higher temperature than the one derived from Jupiter's atmospheric properties. The region that can potentially develop layered convection in Jupiter today is estimated to be limited to 10% of the mass.