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B 0 shimming for in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Experts' consensus recommendations

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Juchem Christoph, Cudalbu Cristina, Graaf Robin A., Gruetter Rolf, Henning Anke, Hetherington Hoby P., Boer Vincent O.,
Project Translational Non-Invasive Metabolic Studies towards Novel Treatments of Chronic Hepatic Encephalopathy in Developing Brain, from 3D Organotypic Brain Cell Cultures to the In vivo Rat and Human Brain
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal NMR Biomed
Page(s) e4350
Title of proceedings NMR Biomed
DOI 10.1002/nbm.4350


Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) allow the chemical analysis of physiological processes in vivo and provide powerful tools in the life sciences and for clinical diagnostics. Excellent homogeneity of the static B0 magnetic field over the object of interest is essential for achieving high-quality spectral results and quantitative metabolic measurements. The experimental minimization of B0 variation is performed in a process called B0 shimming. In this article, we summarize the concepts of B0 field shimming using spherical harmonic shimming techniques, specific strategies for B0 homogenization and crucial factors to consider for implementation and use in both brain and body. In addition, experts' recommendations are provided for minimum requirements for B0 shim hardware and evaluation criteria for the primary outcome of adequate B0 shimming for MRS and MRSI, such as the water spectroscopic linewidth.