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Adsorption behavior of redox-active suppressor additives: Combined electrochemical and STM studies

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Hai NTM, Huynh TMT, Fluegel A, Mayer D, Broekmann P,
Project Copper/Electrolyte Interfaces under Reactive Conditions
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Electrochimica Acta
Volume (Issue) 56(21)
Page(s) 7361 - 7370
Title of proceedings Electrochimica Acta


The redox chemistry and the related surface phase behavior of Safranine (SAF) and Janus Green B (JGB) have been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry in combination with in situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy using HOPG (Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite) and single crystalline Cu(1 0 0) as model substrates, both revealing different widths of the accessible potential windows. JGB and SAF serve as prototypical heterocyclic suppressor/leveler additives that are used for the metallization of 3D-TSVs (3D Through Silicon Vias) following a classical “leveling” concept. SAF can be considered as the reductive decomposition product of JGB that is formed at the copper/electrolyte interface upon electroplating. Both additives reveal a pronounced pH-dependent redox-chemistry with redox-transitions lying close to or even beyond the anodic limit of the copper potential window. Affected by these redox-processes are in particular the aromatic cores of those heterocycles that can be (quasi)reversibly reduced by a two electron transfer process within the potential window of copper. Therefore we identify the reduced form of those dyes as the active components for the suppressing/leveling effect in copper plating. STM data clearly shows a dye surface phase behavior that is crucially determined by its potentialdependent redox-chemistry. This will be exemplarily discussed for the SAF dye. On chloride-modified Cu(1 0 0) mono-reduced SAF forms a structurally well-defined monolayer of cationic stacking polymers. However, this coupled anion/cation layer reveals only minor suppressing capabilities with respect to the copper dissolution and deposition processes. Complete reduction of the aromatic heterocycle finally leads to the 3D precipitation of hydrophobic reaction products. 3D clusters of this SAF precipitate are discussed as the active structural motif for the suppressing effect of these dyes.