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Immuno-Virological Discordance and the Risk of Non-AIDS and AIDS Events in a Large Observational Cohort of HIV-Patients in Europe

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Zoufaly Alexander, Cozzi-Lepri Alessandro, Reekie Joanne, Kirk Ole, Lundgren Jens, Reiss Peter, Jevtovic Djordje, Machala Ladislav, Zangerle Robert, Mocroft Amanda, Van Lunzen Jan,
Project Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS)
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal PLoS ONE
Volume (Issue) 9(1)
Page(s) e87160 - e87160
Title of proceedings PLoS ONE
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0087160

Open Access

Type of Open Access Publisher (Gold Open Access)


Background The impact of immunosuppression despite virological suppression (immuno-virological discordance, ID) on the risk of developing fatal and non-fatal AIDS/non-AIDS events is unclear and remains to be elucidated. Methods Patients in EuroSIDA starting at least 1 new antiretroviral drug with CD4<350 cells/µl and viral load (VL)>500 copies/mL were followed-up from the first day of VL< = 50 copies/ml until a new fatal/non-fatal non-AIDS/AIDS event. Considered non-AIDS events included non-AIDS malignancies, pancreatitis, severe liver disease with hepatic encephalopathy (>grade 3), cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and end-stage renal disease. Patients were classified over time according to whether current CD4 count was above (non-ID) or below (ID) baseline level. Relative rates (RR) of events were calculated for ID vs. non-ID using adjusted Poisson regression models. Results 2,913 patients contributed 11,491 person-years for the analysis of non-AIDS. 241 pre-specified non-AIDS events (including 84 deaths) and 89 AIDS events (including 10 deaths) occurred. The RR of developing pre-specified non-AIDS events for ID vs. non-ID was 1.96 (95% CI 1.37–2.81, p<0.001) in unadjusted analysis and 1.43 (0.94–2.17, p = 0.095) after controlling for current CD4 count. ID was not associated with the risk of AIDS events (aRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.41–1.38, p = 0.361). Conclusion Compared to CD4 responders, patients with immuno-virological discordance may be at increased risk of developing non-AIDS events. Further studies are warranted to establish whether in patients with ID, strategies to directly modify CD4 count response may be needed besides the use of ART.