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TLR and RLR Signaling Are Reprogrammed in Opposite Directions after Detection of Viral Infection

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Hotz Christian, Roetzer Laurin C., Huber Thomas, Sailer Andreas, Oberson Anne, Treinies Marina, Heidegger Simon, Herbst Tina, Endres Stefan, Bourquin Carole,
Project RLR/TLR combination therapy: Mechanisms of T-cell recruitment into gastric tumors
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal The Journal of Immunology
Volume (Issue) 195(9)
Page(s) 4387 - 4395
Title of proceedings The Journal of Immunology
DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1500079


Innate immune recognition of RNA is key for the initiation of immunity in response to viral infection. Although the factors controlling the detection of viral RNA by innate immune receptors in host cells are increasingly well understood, little is known about the dynamic changes in signaling after the initial triggering of these receptors. In this study, we report that preconditioning with the synthetic dsRNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a mimetic of viral RNA, rapidly reprograms murine APCs by simultaneously augmenting sensitivity of endosomal TLRs and inhibiting activation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) in an IFN-β-dependent manner. These changes in receptor sensitivity were also seen in vivo after treatment of mice with poly(I:C). Mechanistically, the increased sensitivity of the TLR pathway was associated with elevated MAPK and NF-κB activity. The RLR response was inhibited downstream of TANK-binding kinase-1, resulting in decreased IFN regulatory factor 3 phosphorylation. Reprogramming of pattern-recognition receptor signaling also occurred after viral infection, because infection of host cells with Sendai virus or their exposure to supernatant from virus-infected cells induced the same changes in TLR and RLR sensitivity as poly(I:C). Thus, innate recognition of viral infection critically modifies responses to pattern-recognition receptor stimulation. These dynamic adaptations to infection may reinforce antiviral immunity and at the same time serve to limit pathological inflammation.