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Antiretroviral drug toxicity in relation to pharmacokinetics, metabolic profile and pharmacogenetics.

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Arab-Alameddine Mona, Décosterd Laurent Arhtur, Buclin Thierry, Telenti Amalio, Csajka Chantal,
Project Pharmacocinétique de population, pharmacogénétique, et profils métaboliques de la thérapie anti-HIV
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology
Volume (Issue) 7
Page(s) 609 - 622
Title of proceedings Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology
DOI 10.1517/17425255.2011.562891


Introduction: Besides therapeutic effectiveness, drug tolerability is a key issue for treatments that must be taken indefinitely. Given the high prevalence of toxicity in HIV therapy, the factors implicated in drug-induced morbidities should be identified in order to improve the safety, tolerability and adherence to the treatments. Current approaches have focused almost exclusively on parent drug concentrations; whereas recent evidence suggests that drug metabolites resulting from complex genetic and environmental influences can also contribute to treatment outcome. Pharmacogenetic variations have shown to play a relevant role in the variability observed in antiretroviral drug exposure, clinical response and sometimes toxicity. The integration of pharmacokinetic, pharmacogenetic and metabolic determinants will more probably address current therapeutic needs in patients. Areas covered: This review offers a concise description of three classes of antiretroviral drugs. The review looks at the metabolic profile of these drugs and gives a comprehensive summary of the existing literature on the influence of pharmacogenetics on their pharmacokinetics and metabolic pathways, and the associated drug or metabolite toxicity. Expert opinion: Due to the high prevalence of toxicity and the related risk of low adherence to the treatments, association of kinetic, genetic and metabolic markers predictive of therapeutic or toxicity outcomes could represent a more complete approach for optimizing antiretroviral therapy.