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The AvrPm3-Pm3 effector-NLR interactions control both race-specific resistance and host-specificity of cereal mildews on wheat

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Bourras Salim, Kunz Lukas, Xue Minfeng, Praz Coraline Rosalie, Müller Marion Claudia, Kälin Carol, Schläfli Michael, Ackermann Patrick, Flückiger Simon, Parlange Francis, Menardo Fabrizio, Schaefer Luisa Katharina, Ben-David Roi, Roffler Stefan, Oberhaensli Simone, Widrig Victoria, Lindner Stefan, Isaksson Jonatan, Wicker Thomas, Yu Dazhao, Keller Beat,
Project Molecular analysis of disease resistance specificity in cereals
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Nature Communications
Volume (Issue) 10(1)
Page(s) 1 - 16
ISBN 4146701910
Title of proceedings Nature Communications
DOI 10.1038/s41467-019-10274-1

Open Access

Type of Open Access Publisher (Gold Open Access)


The wheat Pm3 resistance gene against the powdery mildew pathogen occurs as an allelic series encoding functionally different immune receptors which induce resistance upon recognition of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from the pathogen. Here, we describe the identification of five effector proteins from the mildew pathogens of wheat, rye, and the wild grass Dactylis glomerata, specifically recognized by the PM3B, PM3C and PM3D receptors. Together with the earlier identified AVRPM3A2/F2, the recognized AVRs of PM3B/C, (AVRPM3B2/C2), and PM3D (AVRPM3D3) belong to a large group of proteins with low sequence homology but predicted structural similarities. AvrPm3b2/c2 and AvrPm3d3 are conserved in all tested isolates of wheat and rye mildew, and non-host infection assays demonstrate that Pm3b, Pm3c, and Pm3d are also restricting the growth of rye mildew on wheat. Furthermore, divergent AVR homologues from non-adapted rye and Dactylis mildews are recognized by PM3B, PM3C, or PM3D, demonstrating their involvement in host specificity.