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Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the rodent brain: Experts' consensus recommendations

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Lanz Bernard, Abaei Alireza, Braissant Olivier, Choi In‐Young, Cudalbu Cristina, Henry Pierre‐Gilles, Gruetter Rolf, Kara Firat, Kantarci Kejal, Lee Phil, Lutz Norbert W., Marjańska Małgorzata, Mlynárik Vladimír, Rasche Volker, Xin Lijing, Valette Julien, Behar Kevin, Boumezbeur Fawzi, Deelchand Dinesh Kumar, Dreher Wolfgang, Klaunberg Brenda A., Ligneul Clemence, Lindquist Diana M., Öz Gülin, Tkáč Ivan, Biomed NMR,
Project Translational Non-Invasive Metabolic Studies towards Novel Treatments of Chronic Hepatic Encephalopathy in Developing Brain, from 3D Organotypic Brain Cell Cultures to the In vivo Rat and Human Brain
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal NMR Biomed
Page(s) e4325
Title of proceedings NMR Biomed
DOI 10.1002/nbm.4325


In vivo MRS is a non‐invasive measurement technique used not only in humans, but also in animal models using high‐field magnets. MRS enables the measurement of metabolite concentrations as well as metabolic rates and their modifications in healthy animals and disease models. Such data open the way to a deeper understanding of the underlying biochemistry, related disturbances and mechanisms taking place during or prior to symptoms and tissue changes. In this work, we focus on the main preclinical 1H, 31P and 13C MRS approaches to study brain metabolism in rodent models, with the aim of providing general experts’ consensus recommendations (animal models, anesthesia, data acquisition protocols). An overview of the main practical differences in preclinical compared with clinical MRS studies is presented, as well as the additional biochemical information that can be obtained in animal models in terms of metabolite concentrations and metabolic flux measurements. The properties of high‐field preclinical MRS and the technical limitations are also described.