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Dispatching Stochastic Heterogeneous Resources Accounting for Grid and Battery Losses

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Stai Eleni, Reyes-Chamorro Lorenzo, Sossan Fabrizio, Le Boudec Jean-Yves, Paolone Mario,
Project Integration of Intermittent Widespread Energy Sources in Distribution Networks: Scalable and Reliable Real Time Control of Power Flows
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Volume (Issue) 9(6)
Page(s) 6522 - 6539
Title of proceedings IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
DOI 10.1109/tsg.2017.2715162

Open Access

Type of Open Access Website


We compute an optimal day-ahead dispatch plan for distribution networks with stochastic resources and batteries, while accounting for grid and battery losses. We formulate and solve a scenario-based AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF), which is by construction non-convex. We explain why the existing relaxation methods do not apply and we propose a novel iterative scheme, Corrected DistFlow (CoDistFlow), to solve the scenario-based AC OPF problem in radial networks. It uses a modified branch flow model for radial networks with angle relaxation that accounts for line shunt capacitances. At each step, it solves a convex problem based on a modified DistFlow OPF with correction terms for line losses and node voltages. Then, it updates the correction terms using the results of a full load flow. We prove that under a mild condition, a fixed point of CoDistFlow provides an exact solution to the full AC power flow equations. We propose treating battery losses similarly to grid losses by using a single-port electrical equivalent instead of battery efficiencies. We evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme in a simple and real electrical networks. We conclude that grid and battery losses affect the feasibility of the day-ahead dispatch plan and show how CoDistFlow can handle them correctly.