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Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity Correlate With Total Cholesterol Independently of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Antiretroviral Therapy in Aging People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Marzel Alex, Kouyos Roger D, Reinschmidt Sara, Balzer Katharina, Garon Fabienne, Spitaleri Monica, Matthes Nicolas, Suter Paolo, Weber Rainer, Staehelin Cornelia, Lecompte Thanh Doco, Tarr Philip, Kovari Helen,
Project Dynamics of atherosclerosis progression in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons - a longitudinal study using coronary computed tomography angiography
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume (Issue) 5(4)
Page(s) 1 - 8
Title of proceedings Open Forum Infectious Diseases
DOI 10.1093/ofid/ofy067

Open Access

Type of Open Access Publisher (Gold Open Access)


BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a well established risk factor for coronary heart disease and is highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can both directly modify total cholesterol and have drug-drug interactions with statins. This makes investigating modifiable behavioral predictors of total cholesterol a pertinent task. METHODS: To explore the association between diet and physical activity with cross-sectionally measured total cholesterol, we administered a validated Food-Frequency-Questionnaire to participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study ≥45 years old. Linear mixed-effects models were applied to explore the associations between dietary patterns and physical activity with total cholesterol, after adjustment for clinical and demographic covariates. RESULTS: In total, 395 patients were included. Forty percent (158 of 395) had elevated total cholesterol (>5.2 mmol/L), and 41% (164 of 395) were not regularly physically active. In multivariable analysis, 2 factors were positively associated with total cholesterol; female sex (β = 0.562; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.229-0.896) and the combined consumption of meat, refined/milled grains, carbonated beverages, and coffee (β = 0.243; 95% CI, 0.047-0.439). On the other hand, regular physical activity (β = -0.381; 95% CI, -0.626 to -0.136), lipid-lowering drugs (β = -0.443; 95% CI -0.691 to -0.196), ART containing tenofovir (β = -0.336; 95% CI -0.554 to -0.118), and black ethnicity (β = -0.967; 95% CI -1.524 to -0.410) exhibited a negative association. CONCLUSIONS: We found independent associations between certain dietary patterns and physical activity with total cholesterol. Increasing physical activity might achieve cardiovascular and other health benefits in HIV-positive individuals. The clinical relevance of the identified dietary patterns requires further investigation in prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials.