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Long-Term Drug Monitoring of Propofol and Fouling Effect on Pencil Graphite Electrodes

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Author Francesca Stradolini, Tugba Kilic, Alberto Di Consiglio, Mehmet Ozsoz, Giovanni De Micheli, Sandro Carrara,
Project Continuous Monitoring of Anesthetics Concentration to Control Anesthesia Delivery (acronym: CoMofA)
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Electroanalysis
Volume (Issue) 30
Page(s) 1 - 8
Title of proceedings Electroanalysis
DOI 10.1002/elan.201700834


he evaluation of the efficacy of drugs’ action is of crucial importance for preventing adverse effects due to over- or under-dosing. This is especially valuable in the case of propofol, a benchmark anesthetic, since its plasma concentration has to be continuously monitored to achieve and maintain a certain level of sedation during the surgery. To this end, long-term monitoring approaches have to be implemented. Electrochemical sensors have taken great interest for propofol monitoring. However, the problem of fouling of the propofol on the sensing electrodes, as due to compound-polymerization caused by successive measurements, makes almost impossible the long-term drug monitoring of such a compound. For the first time by this study, we have shown that long-term monitoring of propofol can be achieved by electrochemical sensors based on Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE) with a proper clay/graphite ratio. Our research has shown that a clay/graphite ratio of 0.4 prevents fouling and hence enables monitoring of propofol.up to 4-hours. Surface analysis of various PGEs has been conducted via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) whereas detection of propofol has been investigated by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV).