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Herpes simplex virus enhances chemokine function through modulation of receptor trafficking and oligomerization

Type of publication Peer-reviewed
Publikationsform Original article (peer-reviewed)
Publication date 2014
Author Martinez-Martin Nadia, Martinez-Martin Nadia, Viejo-Borbolla Abel, Viejo-Borbolla Abel, Martín Rocío, Blanco Soledad, Benovic Jeffrey L., Thelen Marcus, Alcamí Antonio, Alcamí Antonio,
Project Conventional and atypical chemokine receptors: different mechanisms of function and common responses
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Original article (peer-reviewed)

Journal Nature Communications
Volume (Issue) 6
Page(s) 6163
Title of proceedings Nature Communications
DOI 10.1038/ncomms7163


© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Glycoprotein G (gG) from herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, important human neurotropic pathogens) is the first viral chemokine-binding protein found to potentiate chemokine function. Here we show that gG attaches to cell surface glycosaminoglycans and induces lipid raft clustering, increasing the incorporation of CXCR4 receptors into these microdomains. gG induces conformational rearrangements in CXCR4 homodimers and changes their intracellular partners, leading to sustained, functional chemokine/receptor complexes at the surface. This results in increased chemotaxis dependent on the cholesterol content of the plasma membrane and receptor association to Src-kinases and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signalling pathways, but independent of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, using electron microscopy, we show that such enhanced functionality is associated with the accumulation of low-order CXCR4 nanoclusters. Our results provide insights into basic mechanisms of chemokine receptor function and into a viral strategy of immune modulation.