Lay summary
Software models are notoriously disconnected from source code. At the start of a software development project, the emphasis is on eliciting system requirements and defining domain and architectural models. Once development commences, the original models become disconnected from the code that they describe. It becomes increasingly difficult to reestablish traceability links as crucial knowledge of design decisions and user features are implicit in the code.This situation poses difficulties for developers who need to understand existing code before adding new features or making changes. Furthermore, developers need to communicate with the domain experts and stakeholders using a representation of the system that both parties can understand. The problem is particularly critical for today's software applications which are constantly evolving and being adapted to new requirements, platforms or services.We propose to investigate four related research tracks that seek to bring models and code closer together:1. Coordinating models and code. Many techniques exist to recover models from various software artifacts, but little has been done to capture implicit human knowledge and to make it explicit in the code. Similarly, little effort has been invested in coordinating different models of a software system and detecting patterns implicit in their interconnections. In this track we will (i) explore ways to embed multiple models in code (e.g., by means of annotations) and navigate between these multiple views, and (ii) apply various clustering techniques to mine higher-level abstractions from code and models. The results of this work will yield useful techniques that are directly applicable in the context of the subsequent three research tracks.2. Embedding domain models in the code. A well-designed and maintainable software system can be viewed as a set of configurations of software components at various levels of abstraction, each capturing different kinds of domain models. To make domain models explicit in the code, we need to raise them to the level of Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) within the host programming language. We plan to (i) develop an adaptive model for a host language to accomodate multiple DSLs, (ii) validate the model by showing how DSL-aware development tools (browser, debuggers etc.) can then both support and exploit domain models to raise the developer's level of abstraction, and (iii) expose implicit domain models by refactoring the APIs towards domain specific languages (DSLs).3. Bringing dynamic models to the IDE. IDEs typically exploit the static software structure while ignoring run-time structures. In this track we plan to (i) explore how the results of run-time analyses can be brought to the IDE to provide a more effective and comprehensive development environment. Run-time information, usage scenarios, and features are examples of the types of information typically missing from an IDE. We will also (ii) carry out empirical studies to validate the effectiveness of run-time analysis techniques for supporting typical development and maintenance tasks.4. Model-centric development. As a direct consequence of the preceding three research tracks, we believe development of new software should benefit from the interplay between the various models that are produced on the way to producing the software itself. Unlike model-driven and round-trip engineering approaches where models and code are seen as separate artifacts, we propose to develop an experimental programming environment in which executable models themselves are the primary artifact produced. Software developed in such an environment should be self-describing and self-aware --- that is, all models are interconnected and are always available to both development and run-time environments. Traceability between models (i.e., from requirements to design decisions) should be explicit in the software itself. As such a system will be self-describing, it will be model-driven at run-time, and can, for example, generate its own user interface and adapt it automatically.