Physical accessibility; Hotspots; Environmental change; Predictive model; Snakebite; One health; Nepal; Cameroon; Snakebite; Accessmod; Snake; Global health
Babo Martins Sara, Bolon Isabelle, Alcoba Gabriel, Ochoa Carlos, Torgerson Paul, Sharma Sanjib J., Ray Nicolas, Chappuis François, Ruiz de CastañedaRafael (2022), Assessment of the effect of snakebite on health and socioeconomic factors using a One Health perspective in the Terai region of Nepal: a cross-sectional study, in The Lancet Global Health
, 10(3), e409–15-e415.
Alcoba Gabriel, Sharma Sanjib, Bolon Isabelle, Ochoa Carlos, Babo Martins Sara, Subedi Manish, Shah Bhupendra, Ghimire Anup, Gignoux Etienne, Luquero Francisco, Ruiz de Castañeda Rafael, Ray Nicolas, Chappuis François (2022), Snakebite epidemiology in humans and domestic animals across the Terai region in Nepal: a multicluster random survey, in The Lancet Global Health
, 10(3), e398-e408.
Ochoa Carlos, Pittavino Marta, Babo Martins Sara, Alcoba Gabriel, Bolon Isabelle, Ruiz de Castañeda Rafael, Joost Stéphane, Sharma Sanjib Kumar, Chappuis François, Ray Nicolas (2021), Estimating and predicting snakebite risk in the Terai region of Nepal through a high-resolution geospatial and One Health approach, in Scientific Reports
, 11(1), 23868-23868.
Potet Julien, Beran David, Ray Nicolas, Alcoba Gabriel, Habib Abdulrazaq Garba, Iliyasu Garba, Waldmann Benjamin, Ralph Ravikar, Faiz Mohammad Abul, Monteiro Wuelton Marcelo, de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett Jacqueline, di Fabio Jose Luis, Cortés María de los Ángeles, Brown Nicholas I., Williams David J. (2021), Access to antivenoms in the developing world: A multidisciplinary analysis, in Toxicon: X
, 12, 100086-100086.
Macharia Peter M, Ray Nicolas, Giorgi Emanuele, Okiro Emelda A, Snow Robert W (2021), Defining service catchment areas in low-resource settings, in BMJ Global Health
, 6(7), e006381-e006381.
Bolon Isabelle, Babo Martins Sara, Ochoa Carlos, Alcoba Gabriel, Herrera María, Bofia Boyogueno Henri Magloire, Sharma Barun Kumar, Subedi Manish, Shah Bhupendra, Wanda Franck, Sharma Sanjib Kumar, Nkwescheu Armand Seraphin, Ray Nicolas, Chappuis François, Ruiz de Castañeda Rafael (2021), What is the impact of snakebite envenoming on domestic animals? A nation-wide community-based study in Nepal and Cameroon, in Toxicon: X
, 9-10, 100068-100068.
Alcoba Gabriel, Ochoa Carlos, Babo Martins Sara, Ruiz de Castañeda Rafael, Bolon Isabelle, Wanda Franck, Comte Eric, Subedi Manish, Shah Bhupendra, Ghimire Anup, Gignoux Etienne, Luquero Francisco, Nkwescheu Armand, Sharma Sanjib Kumar, Chappuis François, Ray Nicolas (2021), Novel transdisciplinary methodology for cross-sectional analysis of snakebite epidemiology at a national scale, in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
, 15(2), e0009023.
Ochoa Carlos, Bolon Isabelle, Durso Andrew M., Ruiz de Castañeda Rafael, Alcoba Gabriel, Babo Martins Sara, Chappuis François, Ray Nicolas (2020), Assessing the Increase of Snakebite Incidence in Relationship to Flooding Events, in Journal of Environmental and Public Health
, 2020, 1-9.
Bolon Isabelle, Durso Andrew M., Botero Mesa Sara, Ray Nicolas, Alcoba Gabriel, Chappuis François, Ruiz de Castañeda Rafael (2020), Identifying the snake: First scoping review on practices of communities and healthcare providers confronted with snakebite across the world, in PLOS ONE
, 15(3), e0229989-e0229989.
Bolon Isabelle, Finat Matias, Herrera María, Nickerson Andrea, Grace Delia, Schütte Stephanie, Babo Martins Sara, Ruiz de Castañeda Rafael (2019), Snakebite in domestic animals: First global scoping review, in Preventive Veterinary Medicine
, 170, 104729-104729.
Babo Martins Sara, Bolon Isabelle, Chappuis François, Ray Nicolas, Alcoba Gabriel, Ochoa Carlos, Kumar Sharma Sanjib, Nkwescheu Armand S., Wanda Franck, Durso Andrew M., Ruiz de Castañeda Rafael (2019), Snakebite and its impact in rural communities: The need for a One Health approach, in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
, 13(9), e0007608-e0007608.
Alcoba Gabriel, Ochoa Carlos, Sharma Sanjib K, Nkwescheu Armand S, Wanda Franck, Babo Martins Sara, Ruiz de Castaneda Rafael Luis, Bolon Isabelle, Ray Nicolas, Chappuis Francois (2019), Snake-byte: first national epidemiological study on snakebite shows high annual incidences in Nepal and Cameroon
, 113(Supplement), S1-S98, Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 113, Issue Supplement_1, UK 113(Supplement), S1-S98.
Bolon Isabelle, Babo Martins Sara, Finat Matias, Schutte S., Ray Nicolas, Chappuis Francois, Alcoba Gabriel, Ochoa Carlos, Wanda Franck, Nkwescheu Armand S, Sharma Sanjib K, Herrera Maria, Ruiz de Castaneda Rafael (2019), Impact of snakebite on livestock and livelihood: a neglected issue?
, 79, 66-66, Elsevier, Elsevier 79, 66-66.
Longbottom Joshua, Shearer Freya M, Devine Maria, Alcoba Gabriel, Chappuis Francois, Weiss Daniel J, Ray Sarah E, Ray Nicolas, Warrell David A, Ruiz de Castañeda Rafael, Williams David J, Hay Simon I, Pigott David M (2018), Vulnerability to snakebite envenoming: a global mapping of hotspots, in The Lancet
, 392(10148), 673-684.
||Alcoba, Gabriel; Ochoa, Carlos; Ray, Nicolas; Chappuis, Francois
|Persistent Identifier (PID)
Primary data of the SNAKE-BYTE project
This data includes the questionnaires and resulting primary data collected between November 2018 and July 2019 in Nepal and Cameroon during the fieldwork of the project. It includes the anonymized raw data and the processed data. Additional information in the ReadMe.txt file in each sub-folder.
This data includes two geospatial rasters resulting from the prediction of snakebite risk in the Terai region of Nepal (Mean and Standard Deviation), and the original publication. Additionally, the ReadMe.txt file provides extra information on the characteristics of the file.
Snakebite is the second neglected tropical killer being responsible for over 100,000 human deaths and 400,000 victims of disability and disfigurement globally every year. It affects poor and rural communities in developing countries, where snakebite is more frequent and access to life-saving healthcare (e.g., antivenom) is limited. Also, snakebite affects livestock animals, which intensifies its impact on agricultural communities through an impact on livelihoods. As these communities lack political voice, snakebite is severely neglected by international and national policy makers and donors, pharmaceutical industry, media and academia. Médecins Sans Frontières refers to snakebite as a “public health emergency gone under the radar”, stressing the lack of reliable reporting systems and the serious underestimation of the global burden of snakebite. Therefore, not only is this a humanitarian crisis but also a crisis of data and scientific knowledge. A Swiss and international interdisciplinary team led by Prof. F. Chappuis (Faculty of Medicine) and Dr. N. Ray (Faculty of Sciences, UNIGE), with experts in tropical and humanitarian medicine (epidemiology, public health), One Health (veterinary public health, disease ecology), zoology (medical biodiversity research, herpetology), toxinology, and spatial analysis and modelling, proposes an unprecedented cross-sectoral collection of data at the household and regional/national levels of two representative hyper-endemic countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon) and South Asia (Nepal) to improve our understanding of snakebite burden (e.g. mortality, DALYs), its direct and indirect impact on livelihoods, and the critical physical accessibility of existing human and animal health services. A total of 24'000 households (close to 120'000 people) will be included in a regional and national human-animal health integrated survey in Nepal and Cameroon (Research Question [RQ] 1). Outputs of RQ1 will feed an analysis of the impact of snakebite on livelihoods (RQ2) and will be complemented with geo-spatial information on national infrastructures (e.g., roads), demography, environment, etc., to map local and regional snakebite hotspots, delineates the population at highest risk, and develop predictive models (RQ3). Models of realistic physical accessibility of life-saving healthcare (RQ4) will help optimize the deployment of life-saving tools (antivenoms, ventilatory support) and understanding the impact of antivenom shortages. This will serve as an evidence-based tool to support local and national health policy at the present (RQ5) but also in the future, in view of environmental and population changes expected in these countries (RQ6). This project is aligned with strategic objectives of the University of Geneva and Hospitals (e.g. humanitarian action, global health) and, following a One Health approach, will reinforce collaborations across the human, animal and environmental fields within our institutions and across International Geneva. This extends to local teams in Cameroon and Nepal favoring capacity building in research and healthcare. Results, data, and experiences from this project will generate science (9 potential publications and 2 PhDs) and nourish teaching programs exposing snakebite and other Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) more prominently, and favoring inter- and transdisciplinary teaching and learning. Evidence will raise scientific, political and public awareness on snakebite and other NTDs at the national level in Cameroon and Nepal, and at the regional level in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia due to the potential for extrapolation of our results, tools and recommendations. The current political momentum of snakebite in the Global Health agenda will be reinforced towards their inclusion in the WHO NTDs list. This project will promote the recognition of local lay knowledge (e.g., traditional medicine) and its integration in epidemiological investigations giving political voice to neglected communities of the world, particularly in Nepal and Cameroon. This will not only improve our understanding of the impact of snakebite but also other NTDs associated with poverty opening the opportunity to tackle them in an integrated and locally adapted manner.