Ability emotional intelligence tests; Emotional intelligence; Emotion information processing; Fluid emotional intelligence; Emotion knowledge; Crystallized emotional intelligence
Fiori Marina, Udayar Shagini, Vesely Maillefer Ashley (2021), Emotion information processing as a new component of emotional intelligence: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence, in European Journal of Personality
Udayar Shagini, Fiori Marina, Bausseron Elise (2020), Emotional intelligence and performance in a stressful task: The mediating role of self-efficacy, in Personality and Individual Differences
, 156, 109790-109790.
Fiori Marina, Udayar Shagini, Vesely-Maillefer Ashley (2019), Introducing A New Component Of Emotional Intelligence: Emotion Information Processing, in Academy of Management Proceedings
, 2019(1), 17276-17276.
Udayar Shagini, Fiori Marina, Thalmayer Amber Gayle, Rossier Jérôme (2018), Investigating the link between trait emotional intelligence, career indecision, and self-perceived employability: The role of career adaptability, in Personality and Individual Differences
, 135, 7-12.
Fiori Marina, Vesely-Maillefer Ashley K. (2018), Emotional Intelligence as an Ability: Theory, Challenges, and New Directions, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 23.
Vesely Maillefer Ashley, Udayar Shagini, Fiori Marina (2018), Enhancing the Prediction of Emotionally Intelligent Behavior: The PAT Integrated Framework Involving Trait EI, Ability EI, and Emotion Information Processing, in Frontiers in Psychology
, 9, 1078.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) was introduced in the psychological literature as a set of abilities that concerns using emotions to guide one's thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Current ability EI tests show moderate correlation with intelligence, supporting the conceptualization of EI as an ability. Interestingly, the component of intelligence mostly correlated with the EI facets is crystallized intelligence or gc (Farrelly & Austin, 2007; Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008; Roberts et al. 2006, Roberts et al., 2008), which suggests that current tests may capture especially the amount of knowledge about emotions people possess. At the same time, ability EI tests show weak associations with emotion information processing tasks, such as inspection time and selective attention to emotional stimuli (Farrelly & Austin, 2010; Fiori & Antonakis, 2012), which are correlated with the fluid component of intelligence or gf. These findings suggest that within a broad conceptualization of EI as a unique construct there might be two distinct components: one related to top-down, higher order reasoning about emotions, which depends more strongly on acquired and culture-bound knowledge about emotions, and may represent the crystallized component of EI (EIc or emotion knowledge component); and another based on bottom-up sensory-motor responses to novel emotion information, which requires faster processing, and may represent the fluid component of EI (EIf or emotion information processing component). The relationship between a component of EI more strongly associated with gc and captured by current EI tests, and another component associated with gf and measured with emotion processing tasks has not been systematically addressed in the literature and deserves further investigation. Being conceptualized as a form of intelligence, EI should be related to both gf and gc. In fact, it is conceivable that high-EI individuals would have wider emotion knowledge, but also stronger emotion processing abilities in dealing with emotional stimuli, both accounting for how individuals perform in emotionally charged situations and each predicting different portions of emotionally intelligent behavior. The identification of a component of EI that is not (fully) captured by current tests is important because it would reveal an aspect of EI that is not measured (and therefore omitted) in current research. Importantly, such a component may predict additional variance in behavior characterized by high emotional involvement. To investigate the fluid and crystallized components of EI two studies employing different methods are proposed. Study 1 will test the underlying structure of EI with a large multivariate study involving EI measures and emotion information processing tasks, in which several CFA models will be confronted to provide the best fit to the data. Study 2 will investigate the relationship between EIc and EIf with an experimental design testing whether individuals with wider, as compared to narrower, emotion knowledge (or EIc) possess a specific way to process emotion information (or EIf). The research will have important theoretical and practical implications. First, it will advance theory by providing a reconceptualization of the basic components underlying EI. Second, it will shed light on the role of the different EI components in differentially predicting emotionally intelligent behavior. Ultimately, it will provide inputs for the development of new EI tests that tap into the fluid component of EI.