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Hydration and carbonation of mantle peridotite: Drilling the Atlantis Massif (MAR 30°N) and the Samail ophiolite (Oman)

Applicant Bernasconi-Green Gretchen
Number 163187
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Geochemistry
Start/End 01.01.2016 - 31.01.2021
Approved amount 496'664.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Geochemistry
Other disciplines of Earth Sciences

Keywords (14)

ICDP continental drilling; IODP ocean drilling; Global carbon cycle; Organic geochemistry; Carbonate precipitation; Upper mantle rocks; Abiotic and biotic carbon; Atlantis Massif; Serpentinization; CO2 sequestration; Lost City; Deep biosphere; Mid-Atlantic Ridge; Oman

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Wir werden uns an zwei internationalen Bohrkampagnen beteiligen: 1) IODP Expedition 357 zum Atlantis Massiv am Mittelozeanischen Rücken im Atlantik (30°N), mit G. Bernasconi Früh-Green als leitende (Co-chief) Wissenschaftlerin; und (2) Bohrungen in den Samail Ophiolithen in Oman als Teil des ICDP „Oman Drilling Project“. Unser Ziel ist es, die Umwandlungsprozesse (Serpentinisierung) von Mantelgesteinen zu untersuchen und die Verteilung von Kohlenstoff in Gasen, Mineralien und organischen Materialien zu bestimmen. Die Wechselwirkung von sauerstoffreichen Oberflächenwässer (Meerwasser, Grundwasser) mit Olivinen und Pyroxenen in Mantelperidotiten führt zu einem fundamentalen Umwandlungsprozess in den Gesteinen. Die so entstehenden extremen chemischen Bedingungen beeinflussen die Bildung der Karbonate und den Kohlenstoffkreislauf in vielfältiger Weise.
Lay summary

Serpentinisierung führt zu stark reduzierenden Bedingungen und fördert die abiotische Produktion von Wasserstoff und Methan sowie weiteren Formen von reduziertem Kohlenstoff. Diese können in Abwesenheit von Sonnenlicht von mikrobiellen Lebewesen als mögliche Energiequellen genutzt werden. Die Alteration von am Meeresboden oder an Land aufgeschlossenen Mantelgesteinen produziert stark alkalische Wässer.  Diese ermöglichen die Aufnahme von CO2 und führen im Kontakt mit Meer- oder Grundwasser zur Ausfällung von Karbonaten. Serpentinite sind somit wichtige Reservoirs für Kohlenstoff in Form von Karbonatmineralien sowie abiotisch und biotisch produziertem organischem Kohlenstoff. Dieser kann in den alten Mantelgesteinen hunderte Millionen Jahre gespeichert werden.

In diesem Projekt werden wir eine Kombination von mikrostrukturellen, mineralogischen und geochemischen, isotopenbestimmenden und spektroskopischen Methoden anwenden, um die Wechselwirkung von Fluiden und Peridotien zu untersuchen. Im Atlantis Massiv und den Samail Ophiolithen werden Herkunft, Verteilung und Kreislauf des Kohlenstoffs während der Serpentinisierung untersucht. Schlussendlich möchten wir besser verstehen, wie, wann und wo die Bildung von biotischen resp. abiotischen Kohlenstoffverbindungen begünstigt wird.

Unsere Fragen sind: Welche sind die wichtigste Kohlenstoffhaltige Phasen in Serpentiniten? Wie können abiotisch und biotisch fixierter Kohlenstoff in Serpentiniten unterschieden werden? Welche Rollen spielen die Serpentinisierung in Bezug auf Kohlenstoffbindung und Wasserstoffgenerierende Reaktionen in der Bildung und im Kreislauf von abiotischem und/oder biotischem Kohlenstoff? Wie unterscheiden sich diese Prozesse in marinen und meteorischen Systemen und wie kann die Sättigung an Kohlensäure und CO2-Bindung im natürlichen System quantifiziert werden?

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 16.10.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Methane thermometry in deep-sea hydrothermal systems: Evidence for re-ordering of doubly-substituted isotopologues during fluid cooling
Labidi J., Young E.D., Giunta T., Kohl I.E., Seewald J., Tang H., Lilley M.D., Früh-Green G.L. (2020), Methane thermometry in deep-sea hydrothermal systems: Evidence for re-ordering of doubly-substituted isotopologues during fluid cooling, in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 288, 248-261.
Microbial Residents of the Atlantis Massif’s Shallow Serpentinite Subsurface
Motamedi Shahrzad, Orcutt Beth N., Früh-Green Gretchen L., Twing Katrina I., Pendleton H. Lizethe, Brazelton William J. (2020), Microbial Residents of the Atlantis Massif’s Shallow Serpentinite Subsurface, in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 86(11), e00356-20.
Serpentinite in the Earth system
McCaig Andrew M., Früh-Green Gretchen L., Kelemen Peter, Teagle Damon A. H. (2020), Serpentinite in the Earth system, in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 378(2165), 20190332-20190332.
Compositional heterogeneity and melt transport in mantle beneath Mid-Atlantic Ridge constrained by peridotite, dunite, and wehrlite from Atlantis Massif
Akizawa Norikatsu, Früh-Green Gretchen L., Tamura Akihiro, Tamura Chiori, Morishita Tomoaki (2020), Compositional heterogeneity and melt transport in mantle beneath Mid-Atlantic Ridge constrained by peridotite, dunite, and wehrlite from Atlantis Massif, in Lithos, 354-355, 105364-105364.
Antigorite crystallization during oceanic retrograde serpentinization of abyssal peridotites
Rouméjon Stéphane, Andreani Muriel, Früh-Green Gretchen L. (2019), Antigorite crystallization during oceanic retrograde serpentinization of abyssal peridotites, in Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 174(7), 60-60.
In Search of Life Under the Seafloor
Fruh-Green Gretchen, Orcutt Beth (2019), In Search of Life Under the Seafloor, in Eos, 100, 31-35.
Deeply-sourced formate fuels sulfate reducers but not methanogens at Lost City hydrothermal field
Lang Susan Q., Früh-Green Gretchen L., Bernasconi Stefano M., Brazelton William J., Schrenk Matthew O., McGonigle Julia M. (2018), Deeply-sourced formate fuels sulfate reducers but not methanogens at Lost City hydrothermal field, in Scientific Reports, 8(1), 755-755.
In-situ oxygen isotope analyses in serpentine minerals: Constraints on serpentinization during tectonic exhumation at slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges
Rouméjon Stéphane, Williams Morgan J., Früh-Green Gretchen L. (2018), In-situ oxygen isotope analyses in serpentine minerals: Constraints on serpentinization during tectonic exhumation at slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges, in Lithos, 323, 156-173.
Magmatism, serpentinization and life: Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357)
Früh-Green Gretchen L., Orcutt Beth N., Rouméjon Stéphane, Lilley Marvin D., Morono Yuki, Cotterill Carol, Green Sophie, Escartin Javier, John Barbara E., McCaig Andrew M., Cannat Mathilde, Ménez Bénédicte, Schwarzenbach Esther M., Williams Morgan J., Morgan Sally, Lang Susan Q., Schrenk Matthew O., Brazelton William J., Akizawa Norikatsu, Boschi Chiara, Dunkel Kristina G., Quéméneur Marianne, Whattam Scott A., Mayhew Lisa, et al. (2018), Magmatism, serpentinization and life: Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357), in Lithos, 323, 137-155.
Tracking Water‐Rock Interaction at the Atlantis Massif (MAR, 30°N) Using Sulfur Geochemistry
Liebmann J., Schwarzenbach E. M., Früh‐Green G. L., Boschi C., Rouméjon S., Strauss H., Wiechert U., John T. (2018), Tracking Water‐Rock Interaction at the Atlantis Massif (MAR, 30°N) Using Sulfur Geochemistry, in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 19(11), 4561-4583.
Alteration Heterogeneities in Peridotites Exhumed on the Southern Wall of the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357)
Rouméjon Stéphane, Früh-Green Gretchen L, Orcutt Beth N (2018), Alteration Heterogeneities in Peridotites Exhumed on the Southern Wall of the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357), in Journal of Petrology, 59(7), 1329-1358.
Contamination tracer testing with seabed drills: IODP Expedition 357
Orcutt Beth N., Bergenthal Markus, Freudenthal Tim, Smith David, Lilley Marvin D., Schnieders Luzie, Green Sophie, Früh-Green Gretchen L. (2017), Contamination tracer testing with seabed drills: IODP Expedition 357, in Scientific Drilling, 23, 39-46.
Magnetic exploration of a low-temperature ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal site (Lost City, 30°N, MAR)
Szitkar Florent, Tivey Maurice A., Kelley Deborah S., Karson Jeffrey A., Früh-Green Gretchen L., Denny Alden R. (2017), Magnetic exploration of a low-temperature ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal site (Lost City, 30°N, MAR), in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 461, 40-45.
Atlantis Massif Serpentinization and Life. Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program, 357
Früh-Green G.L., Orcutt B.N., Green S.L., Cotterill C. (2017), Atlantis Massif Serpentinization and Life. Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program, 357, International Ocean Discovery Program, College Station, TX, USA.
Atlantis Massif Serpentinization and Life: Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program, 357
Früh-Green G.L., Orcutt B.N., Green S.L., Cotterill C. (2017), Atlantis Massif Serpentinization and Life: Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program, 357, International Ocean Discovery Program, College Station, TX.
Metagenomic identification of active methanogens and methanotrophs in serpentinite springs of the Voltri Massif, Italy
Brazelton William J., Thornton Christopher N., Hyer Alex, Twing Katrina I., Longino August A., Lang Susan Q., Lilley Marvin D., Früh-Green Gretchen L., Schrenk Matthew O. (2017), Metagenomic identification of active methanogens and methanotrophs in serpentinite springs of the Voltri Massif, Italy, in PeerJ, 5, e2945-e2945.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Deep Energy Program, Ohio State University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Utah United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of South Carolina United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Michigan State University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Lausanne Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Columbia University/Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Géosciences marines, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris France (Europe)
- Publication
ETH Scientific Center for Optical and Electron Microscopy (ScopeM) Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
School of Oceanography/University of Washington, Seattle United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
SwissSIMS, Université de Lausanne Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, UCLA, CA United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Southampton/School of Ocean and Earth Science Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
18th Swiss Geoscience Meeting, Zürich 2020 Talk given at a conference Distribution and Sources of Carbon at the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357) 07.11.2020 Zürich, Switzerland Bernasconi-Green Gretchen; Bernasconi Stefano; Ternieten Lotta;
International Conference on Ophiolites and the Oceanic Lithosphere: Results of the Oman Drilling Project and Related Research Talk given at a conference Distribution and Sources of Carbon in Serpentinized Mantle Peridotites at the Samail Ophiolite 12.01.2020 Muscat, Oman Ternieten Lotta; Bernasconi Stefano; Bernasconi-Green Gretchen;
International Conference on Ophiolites and the Oceanic Lithosphere: Results of the Oman Drilling Project and Related Research Poster Serpentinization, carbon and life: Atlantis Massif & the Lost City Hydrothermal Field 12.01.2020 Muscat, Oman Bernasconi Stefano; Bernasconi-Green Gretchen; Ternieten Lotta;
AGU Fall Meeting 2019 Talk given at a conference Distribution and Sources of Carbon in Serpentinized Mantle Peridotites at the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357) 09.12.2019 San Franscisco, CA, USA, United States of America Ternieten Lotta; Bernasconi-Green Gretchen; Bernasconi Stefano;
Deep Carbon 2019: Launching the Next Decade of Deep Carbon Science Talk given at a conference Serpentinization, carbon and life: Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357) 24.04.2019 Washington, D.C., United States of America Bernasconi-Green Gretchen; Ternieten Lotta; Bernasconi Stefano;
EGU General Assembly 2019 Poster Hydrothermal Alteration of the Crust-Mantle Transition and Upper Mantle in the Samail Ophiolite: Insights from the Oman Drilling Project 09.04.2019 Wien, Austria Bernasconi-Green Gretchen;
EGU General Assembly 2019 Poster Carbon Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Serpentinized Mantle Peridotites at the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357) 09.04.2019 Wien, Austria Bernasconi Stefano; Ternieten Lotta; Bernasconi-Green Gretchen;
AGU Fall Meeting 2018 Talk given at a conference Hydrothermal Alteration of the Crust-Mantle Transition and Upper Mantle in the Samail Ophiolite: Insights from Holes CM1A and CM2B of the Oman Drilling Project 10.12.2018 Washington, DC, USA, United States of America Bernasconi-Green Gretchen;
16th Swiss Geoscience Meeting, Bern 2018 Poster In search of life in the subseafloor of serpentinized peridotites: An overview of IODP Expedition 357 (Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N) 01.12.2018 Bern, Switzerland Rouméjon Stéphane; Bernasconi Stefano; Bernasconi-Green Gretchen;
16th Swiss Geoscience Meeting, Bern 2018 Poster Carbon Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Serpentinized Mantle Peridotites at the Atlantis Massif: Results from IODP Expedition 357 01.12.2018 Bern, Switzerland Bernasconi-Green Gretchen; Ternieten Lotta; Bernasconi Stefano;
Serpentinite in the Earth system, Royal Society Discussion Meeting Poster Carbon Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Serpentinized Mantle Peridotites at the Atlantis Massif: Results from IODP Expedition 357 06.11.2018 London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Ternieten Lotta; Bernasconi-Green Gretchen;
AGU Fall Meeting 2017 Talk given at a conference Alteration heterogeneities in peridotites tectonically exhumed along slow-spreading ridges 11.12.2017 New Orleans, USA, United States of America Bernasconi-Green Gretchen; Rouméjon Stéphane;
Deep Carbon Observatory 3rd International Science Meeting Talk given at a conference Serpentinization, carbon and life: Preliminary results of drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357) 23.03.2017 St. Andrews, Scotland, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Bernasconi-Green Gretchen;
AGU Fall Meeting 2016 Talk given at a conference Detachment Faulting, Serpentinization, Fluids and Life: Preliminary Results of IODP Expedition 357 (Atlantis Massif, MAR 30N) 12.12.2016 San Franscisco CA, United States of America Rouméjon Stéphane; Bernasconi-Green Gretchen;
4th International 'Serpentine Days' Workshop Talk given at a conference KEYNOTE: Serpentinization and Life: Drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357) 25.09.2016 Séte, France Bernasconi-Green Gretchen;
4th International 'Serpentine Days" Workshop Poster Hydrothermal alteration of peridotites exhumed on the southern wall of the Atlantis Massif 25.09.2016 Séte, France Bernasconi-Green Gretchen; Rouméjon Stéphane;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Serpentinite in the Earth system, Royal Society Discussion Meeting 06.11.2018 London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
143891 Unravelling Abiotic and Biotic Sources and Sinks of Carbon in Marine Hydrothermal Systems 01.10.2012 Project funding
147145 Swiss Membership in the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) 01.01.2014 Research Infrastructure
183294 QCL4CLUMPS: Simultaneous QC laser spectroscopic analysis of clumped 13C-D and D-D (2 x 2) isotopes in CH4 01.03.2020 R'EQUIP
146886 Fluid-Rock Interaction and Fluid Fluxes in Mafic and Ultramafic Seafloor II: Peridotite-hosted Hydrothermal Systems Past and Present 01.04.2013 Project funding
132030 SwissSIMS: A request for a Swiss National Dynamic Secondary Ion Probe Facility 01.10.2010 Research Infrastructure
131922 Life in Extreme Environments II: Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles in High Alkaline Systems 01.10.2010 Project funding
147139 Swiss participation in the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) through membership in the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) 01.01.2014 Research Infrastructure
182091 Swiss participation in the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) through membership in the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) 01.01.2019 Research Infrastructure
182090 Swiss membership in the International Scientific Continental Drilling Program ICDP 01.01.2019 Research Infrastructure
169892 Swiss participation in the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) through membership in the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) 01.01.2017 Research Infrastructure

Abstract

This project will take advantage of opportunities to participate in two exciting scientific drilling projects that target active hydration (serpentinization) and carbonation processes in upper mantle rocks: (1) IODP Expedition 357 to the Atlantis Massif at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N, with G. Bernasconi Früh-Green as invited Co-chief Scientist; and (2) drilling on land in the Samail Ophiolite as part of the ICDP Oman Drilling Project. The interaction of oxidized surface waters (seawater, ground water) with olivine and pyroxene in mantle peridotites is a fundamental process that results in extreme chemical conditions that affect the speciation and cycling of carbon in a number of ways. Serpentinization reactions lead to highly reducing conditions and the abiotic production of hydrogen and methane as well as other forms of reduced carbon, which provide possible sources of energy to fuel microbial life in the absence of sunlight. The alteration of mantle rocks exposed on the seafloor and on land also produces highly alkaline waters, which trigger the uptake of CO2 and deposit carbonate when mixed with seawater or groundwater. Serpentinites are thus an important reservoir for carbon in the form of carbonate minerals as well as abiotically and biotically produced organic carbon, all of which can survive in ancient mantle domains for hundreds of millions of years. We will combine microstructural, mineralogical and state-of-the-art geochemical, isotopic and spectroscopic methods to evaluate how fluid flow paths, microfractures and permeability networks evolve with time and to investigate the origin, distribution and cycling of carbon during serpentinization in the two distinct environments: the Atlantis Massif in the Atlantic Ocean and the Samail Ophiolite in Oman. Ultimately we aim to better understand how, when, and where the formation of abiotic vs biotic carbon compounds is favoured in serpentinizing environments. We will address fundamental questions, such as: What are the dominant carbon-bearing phases and the nature of reduced carbon in serpentinites in these two tectonically distinct environments? What are the rates of carbon fixation (as biomass, solid reduced carbon, or carbonate) in ultramafic rocks during low temperature hydrothermal alteration and weathering? How can we distinguish abiotic from biotic carbon in serpentinites? What are the roles of serpentinization in carbon sequestration and H2-generating reactions in the formation and cycling of abiotic and/or biotic carbon? How do these processes vary between marine and meteoric systems, and how can carbonation and CO2 sequestration be quantified in natural systems?
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