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Unraveling the Decision-Making Process of Sex Offenders Combining Decisions to both Maximize the Payoffs and Minimize the Costs Associated with the Crime in an Integrated Model of the Crime-Commission Process

English title Unraveling the Decision-Making Process of Sex Offenders Combining Decisions to both Maximize the Payoffs and Minimize the Costs Associated with the Crime in an Integrated Model of the Crime-Commission Process
Applicant Chopin Julien
Number 190994
Funding scheme Postdoc.Mobility
Research institution School of Criminology Simon Fraser University
Institution of higher education Institution abroad - IACH
Main discipline Legal sciences
Start/End 01.01.2020 - 30.06.2021
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Keywords (5)

Decision-making process; Crime commission process; Sexual crime; Rational choice theory; Forensic awareness strategies

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
La théorie du choix rationnel en criminologie suggère que les criminels prennent des décisions pour maximiser leurs bénéfices tout en réduisant les coûts engendrés par leurs actions. Cette recherche s’intéresse aux interactions entre ces deux types de décisions afin d’améliorer la compréhension du processus de décision des agresseurs sexuels. L’objectif est également d’approfondir la théorie du choix rationnel.
Lay summary

Les agresseurs sexuels sont souvent perçus comme des individus irrationnels poursuivant des motivations incompréhensibles. Cependant, la recherche en criminologie a montré que ces criminels ne diffèrent pas spécialement des autres criminels et qu’ils agissent pour la plupart d’entre eux en prenant des décisions rationnelles. La théorie du choix rationnel en criminologie suggère que les criminelles prennent leurs décisions notamment à travers le processus de commission du crime en analysant, consciemment ou non, les bénéfices et les coûts qui pourraient résulter de leurs actions. Concrètement, les agresseurs sexuels vont donc prendre une série de décisions afin d’accroitre le bénéfice de leurs actes tout en évitant d’être détectés par la police. Jusque-là, les travaux sur le processus de décisions des agresseurs sexuels se sont penchés sur leur capacité à maximiser les bénéfices de leur acte sans pour autant étudier leur capacité minimiser les couts de leur action. Cette recherche a pour objectif d’étudier les interactions entre ces deux catégories de décisions et de proposer un modèle intégré du processus de décisions des agresseurs sexuels.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 14.12.2019

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Publications

Publication
Making sense of senseless murders: The who, what, when, and where?
Reale Kylie S., Beauregard Eric, Chopin Julien, Wells Nathan (2021), Making sense of senseless murders: The who, what, when, and where?, in Behavioral Sience & The Law, 39(2), 230-244.
Expert Versus Novice: Criminal Expertise in Sexual Burglary and Sexual Robbery
Reale Kylie S., Beauregard Eric, Chopin Julien (2021), Expert Versus Novice: Criminal Expertise in Sexual Burglary and Sexual Robbery, in Sexual Abuse, 1079063221-1079063221.
Criminal Expertise and Sexual Violence: Comparing the Crime-Commission Process Involved in Sexual Burglary and Sexual Robbery
Reale Kylie S., Beauregard Eric, Chopin Julien (2021), Criminal Expertise and Sexual Violence: Comparing the Crime-Commission Process Involved in Sexual Burglary and Sexual Robbery, in Criminal Justice and Behavior, 0093854821-0093854821.
Is Criminal Expertise a Feature of Unsolved Sexual Assault Involving Theft?
Reale Kylie S., Beauregard Eric, Chopin Julien (2021), Is Criminal Expertise a Feature of Unsolved Sexual Assault Involving Theft?, in International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 0306624X21-0306624X21.
Criminal Mobility and Motiveless Homicide: An Investigative Approach
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric, Real Kylie (2021), Criminal Mobility and Motiveless Homicide: An Investigative Approach, in Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 1-13.
The Role of Victim–Offender Alcohol Abuse on Crime Commission Process Involved in Sexual Victimization
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric (2021), The Role of Victim–Offender Alcohol Abuse on Crime Commission Process Involved in Sexual Victimization, in Victims & Offenders, 1-22.
Sadistic juvenile offenders: identifying clinical intervention dimensions based on sadism manifestations and criminogenic factors
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric (2021), Sadistic juvenile offenders: identifying clinical intervention dimensions based on sadism manifestations and criminogenic factors, in The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 1-18.
Patterns of overkill in sexual homicides
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric (2021), Patterns of overkill in sexual homicides, in Journal of Criminal Psychology, 11(1), 44-58.
Homicidal child sexual abuse: Identifying the combinations of factors predicting a lethal outcome
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric, Delisi Matt (2021), Homicidal child sexual abuse: Identifying the combinations of factors predicting a lethal outcome, in Child Abuse and Neglect, 1/24.
Is There an Expert Stranger “Rapist”?
Chopin julien, Paquette Sarah, Beauregard Eric (2021), Is There an Expert Stranger “Rapist”?, in Sexual Abuse, 1-28.
Juvenile Sexual Murderers: Examination and Classification of the Crime‐Commission Process
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric (2020), Juvenile Sexual Murderers: Examination and Classification of the Crime‐Commission Process, in Journal of Forensic Sciences, 65(5), 1627-1637.
The lesser of two evils? Sexual homicide as an “hybrid” offense
Beauregard Eric, Chopin Julien (2020), The lesser of two evils? Sexual homicide as an “hybrid” offense, in Journal of Criminal Justice, 101722-101722.
Scripting Extrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse: A Latent Class Analysis of the Entire Crime-Commission Process
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric (2020), Scripting Extrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse: A Latent Class Analysis of the Entire Crime-Commission Process, in Child Abuse & Neglect, 106, 104521-104521.
Offender and victim ‘journey-to-crime’: Motivational differences among stranger rapists
Hewitt Ashley N., Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric (2020), Offender and victim ‘journey-to-crime’: Motivational differences among stranger rapists, in Journal of Criminal Justice, 69, 101707-101707.
Sex Offenders’ Forensic Awareness Strategies
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric (2020), Sex Offenders’ Forensic Awareness Strategies, in Reid Joan, Fox Bryanna, Masys Anthony (ed.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 39-55.
“Drop the Body”: Body Disposal Patterns in Sexual Homicide
Chai April Miin Miin, Beauregard Eric, Chopin Julien (2020), “Drop the Body”: Body Disposal Patterns in Sexual Homicide, in International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 0306624X20-0306624X20.
Factors influencing the use of forensic awareness strategies in sexual homicide
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric, Bitzer Sonja (2020), Factors influencing the use of forensic awareness strategies in sexual homicide, in Journal of Criminal Justice, 101709-101709.
Lethal outcome in elderly sexual violence: Escalation or different intent?
Beauregard Eric, Chopin Julien, Winter Jan (2020), Lethal outcome in elderly sexual violence: Escalation or different intent?, in Journal of Criminal Justice, 101704-101704.
Sexual Sadism: Its Role in the Crime-Commission Process of Sexual Homicide of Children
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric (2020), Sexual Sadism: Its Role in the Crime-Commission Process of Sexual Homicide of Children, in Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0886260520-0886260520.
Body Dismemberment in Sexual Homicide Cases: Lust Murder or Rational Decision?
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric (2020), Body Dismemberment in Sexual Homicide Cases: Lust Murder or Rational Decision?, in Psychology, Crime & Law, 1/24.
Foreign object insertion in sexual homicide: A new perspective
Beauregard Eric, Chopin Julien, Darjee Raje (2020), Foreign object insertion in sexual homicide: A new perspective, in Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1-19.
L’influence des comportements paraphiliques sur le mode opératoire des agresseurs sexuels
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric, Gatherias Florent, Oliveira Emma (2020), L’influence des comportements paraphiliques sur le mode opératoire des agresseurs sexuels, in Criminologie, 55(2), 109-141.
Les agressions sexuelles d’enfants non résolues par la police : Une analyse du processus de passage à l’acte [Unsolved sexual assaults of children: An analysis of the crime-commission process]
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric, Deslaurier-Varin Nadine (2020), Les agressions sexuelles d’enfants non résolues par la police : Une analyse du processus de passage à l’acte [Unsolved sexual assaults of children: An analysis of the crime-commission process], in Criminologie, 53(2), 77-107.
Patterns of Necrophilic Behavior in Sexual Homicide: A Criminological Perspective
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric (2020), Patterns of Necrophilic Behavior in Sexual Homicide: A Criminological Perspective, in International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 1-24.
Death in Sadistic Sexual Crimes: A Neural Network Analysis of Factors Associated with a Lethal Outcome
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric, Dietz Park, Death in Sadistic Sexual Crimes: A Neural Network Analysis of Factors Associated with a Lethal Outcome, in Criminal Justice and Behavior.
Elderly Sexual Abuse: Theory, Research, and Practice, Routledge
BeauregardEric, ChopinJulien, Elderly Sexual Abuse: Theory, Research, and Practice, Routledge, Routledge, Oxon, UK.
La victimisation sexuelle des personnes âgées dans un contexte extrafamilial. Une analyse en classes latentes du processus victimologique
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric, La victimisation sexuelle des personnes âgées dans un contexte extrafamilial. Une analyse en classes latentes du processus victimologique, in Revue Internationale de Police Technique et Scientifique.
Les jeunes enfants victimes d’agressions sexuelles en contexte extrafamilial : Identifier les processus de victimisation spécifiques à partir de l’analyse de réseau neuronal pour comprendre et interve
Chopin Julien, Paquette Sarah, Les jeunes enfants victimes d’agressions sexuelles en contexte extrafamilial : Identifier les processus de victimisation spécifiques à partir de l’analyse de réseau neuronal pour comprendre et interve, in Revue Internationale de Police Technique et Scientifique.
Measuring Interaction Potential: Mobility Triangles
ChopinJulien, BeauregardEric, Caneppele Stefano, Measuring Interaction Potential: Mobility Triangles, in Groff Elizabeth, Haberman Corey (ed.), Temple University Press, Philadelphia, PA.
Sexual Homicide and its Investigation: New Perspectives to Improve Police Practices
ChopinJulien, BeauregardEric, Sexual Homicide and its Investigation: New Perspectives to Improve Police Practices, in Bennell Craig, Deslaurier-Varin Nadine (ed.), Springer, New York.
Sexual Homicide: An Updated Analysis of the Offender, the Victim and the Offence
BeauregardEric, ChopinJulien, Sexual Homicide: An Updated Analysis of the Offender, the Victim and the Offence, in Kocsis Richard (ed.), Springer, New York, NY.
The Unusual Case of Sexual Homicide Against Males: Comparisons and Classification
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric, The Unusual Case of Sexual Homicide Against Males: Comparisons and Classification, in Psychology of Violence.
Understanding the Sexual Victimization of Children by Juveniles: Identifying Criminal Event
Chopin Julien, Beauregard Eric, Understanding the Sexual Victimization of Children by Juveniles: Identifying Criminal Event, in Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dutch National Police Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Ministère de l'Intérieur France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Swinburne University of Technology Australia (Oceania)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Sureté du Québec Canada (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Iowa State University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Université Laval Canada (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Griffith University Australia (Oceania)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Texas State University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
178193 Détection de patterns situationnels dynamiques et implication dans la résolution des crimes sexuels de prédation 01.07.2018 Early Postdoc.Mobility

Abstract

Sex offenders have traditionally been considered as being driven by irrational urges and an uncontrollable need to commit a sexual aggression (e.g., Simon, 2000). However, recent empirical studies have shown that this belief is not empirically supported (e.g., Lussier, Proulx, & Leblanc, 2005). On the contrary, many empirical studies have shown that most sex offenders are not different from other types of offenders and make rational decisions during the crime commission (e.g., Harris, Smallbone, Dennison, & Knight, 2009; Lussier & Healey, 2009; Lussier, LeBlanc, & Proulx, 2005). These studies suggest that the rational choice theory in criminology is particularly useful to explain the perpetration of sexual assaults. The rational choice theory (Cornish & Clarke, 1986, 1987) assumes that an offender decides whether or not to commit a crime by weighing the efforts, rewards, and costs involved in an alternative course of action. One of the most significant costs for offenders is to be identified and arrested by the police. Thus, offenders will make decisions to increase the benefits of their crimes while avoiding police detection. During the crime-commission process, sex offenders have to deal both with decisions to maximize the crime success and to minimize the costs associated with the crime. According to Cornish (1994), the crime involves different stages: the pre-crime, crime and post-crime phases. Pre-crime and crime phases are characterized by decisions leading to increase the benefits of the crime while the post-crime phase deals specifically with how offenders ‘exit’ the crime scene and attempt to avoid detection (Cornish, 1994). To examine the rationality of sex offenders, scholars have investigated their decision-making process (Beauregard & Leclerc, 2007; Beauregard, Leclerc, & Lussier, 2012; Beauregard, Proulx, Rossmo, Leclerc, & Allaire, 2007; Beauregard, Rossmo, & Proulx, 2007; Proulx & Beauregard, 2009). Research on this topic focused specifically on the decisions and choices leading to successfully commit a crime. Existing decision-making models are incomplete as they focused only on the offenders’ ability to maximize crime payoffs, neglecting to examine their ability to minimize the costs associated with the crime - that is police detection. Therefore, the aim of this study is twofold: (1) determine the factors associated with the decision-making process of sex offenders to minimize costs associated with the crime commission and (2) include these decisions in an integrated decision-making model to analyze the rationality of sex offenders.
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