temperature stabilization; electric dipole moment; ultracold neutrons; neutron; CP violation
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Abel Christopher, Bison Georg, Griffith W. Clark, Heil Werner, Kirch Klaus, Koch Hans-Christian, Lauss Bernhard, Mtchedlishvili Alexander, Pototschnig Martin, Schmidt-Wellenburg Philipp, Schnabel Allard, Pais Duarte, Voigt Jens (2019), PicoTesla absolute field readings with a hybrid 3He/87Rb magnetometer, in The European Physical Journal D
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Measurements of permanent electric dipole moments (EDM) of particles with spin are at the forefront of particle physics searches for violations of the combined charge parity symmetry CP. They are considered among the most promising routes to establishing physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics.The n2EDM experiment is being built and performed by the international nEDM collaboration at PSIusing the high intensity source of ultracold neutrons (UCN) and aiming at an improved measurement of the neutron EDM. The target sensitivity of the n2EDM baseline project is 1E-27ecm and improvements for entering the few 1E-28ecm regime are being developed.With this FLARE grant application the Swiss member groups of the collaboration, from ETHZ, PSI and University of Bern, plan to support their 2019/20 contributions to the setup and the installations. By that, the timely completion of the full hardware of the new n2EDM experiment will be possible.The international nEDM collaboration at PSI has performed the latest world-leading nEDM experiment in the PSI UCN area South. It has accumulated the most sensitive data set in 2015 and 2016 which is currently being analyzed. The result is expected to be published soon.In fall 2017, the nEDM collaboration has disassembled the nEDM apparatus at PSI and started to buildthe new n2EDM experiment in area South. The latter is designed to improve the sensitivity to the permanent neutron EDM by at least an order of magnitude.While our collaboration is leading the field of neutron EDM searches, there is a strong world-wide competition of at least five other sizeable projects on comparable or slightly later schedules, at the ILL Grenoble, at the SNS Oakridge, at LANL Los Alamos, at PNPI Gatchina, and at TRIUMF Vancouver. It is therefore important to keep the momentum high and realize the n2EDM experiment at PSI on time. PSI has laid the foundation for this experiment with the construction of the high intensity UCN source 2005-10 at the second target station of the high intensity proton accelerator (HIPA). ETH Zurich and PSI, supported by SNSF R'equip, matching funds and a major contribution from the former Berthele foundation at ETHZ, have acquired a highly performant, large-volume magnetically shielded room (MSR) which is presently being installed in UCN area South. The UCN source at PSI together with this extraordinary MSR provide the setting for the next world-leading measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment with n2EDM.The Swiss groups contribute to the experiment with major involvement of about 50% of the capital investment and 30% of the scientists. There is SNSF project funding of the involved groups in place. SNSF R'equip is supporting dedicated power supplies for the experiment with matching from PSI. PSI, ETHZ and University of Bern inject additional sizeable funds to the activities of their groups.University of Bern is designing and will be building the most central part, the neutron chambers with specially-coated high-voltage electrodes and high voltage feedthroughs. ETH Zurich is, among other committments, designing and later building the demanding surrounding-field-compensation (SFC) system. While the hardware for these contributions is covered, among others by SNSF project grants and university/ETH money, the design, the integration and later the installation into the full setup need additional technical manpower. It is one part of this grant request to cover 50%-positions for a designer and for a mechanical technician over two years (to be shared between ETHZ and UniBe and frequently working at PSI) in order to help the Zurich and Bern groups to accomplish their tasks. Moreover, the MSR and the whole experiment need a temperature-stabilized environment. The n2EDM setup will therefore be housed in an air-conditioned enclosure (``thermohouse") for which the Swiss groups assumed responsibility. The thermohouse work will be coordinated by PSI as it has to comply with all site-specific standards, especially for safety. It is our aim to fund it commonly from the Swiss institutions via this FLARE grant. The thermohouse is a critical part of the experiment.It will allow stabilizing the temperature around the MSR to less than 1K and, by that, yield a temperature stability of the experiment inside the MSR of a few mK. This is in turn a prerequisite for the magnetic field stability and the operation of the chamber to be built by UniBe. It will also help to keep the experiment clean which is important because of the danger of magnetic contaminants in dust that could enter the experiment. Moreover, the thermohouse provides the supporting structure for the SFC to be built by ETHZ. The coils of the SFC will weigh several tons and need a very solid structure for their mounting. The integration and installation of all these parts should be supported by the requested FLARE technical manpower. The latter will interface with the available technical personnel at PSI working on integration and setup.