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Energy efficient optical frequency combs based on photonic integrated resonators and temporally structured pump light

English title Energy efficient optical frequency combs based on photonic integrated resonators and temporally structured pump light
Applicant Kippenberg Tobias Jan
Number 176563
Funding scheme Bridge - Discovery
Research institution Laboratoire de photonique et mesures quantiques EPFL - STI - IEL - LPQM2
Institution of higher education EPF Lausanne - EPFL
Main discipline Other disciplines of Physics
Start/End 01.05.2018 - 30.04.2022
Approved amount 1'150'603.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Other disciplines of Physics
Microelectronics. Optoelectronics

Keywords (3)

Photonic Damascene fabrication process; Silicon Nitride microresonators; electro-optic comb

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Ce projet vise à élargir le domaine d’application des micro-résonateurs optiques comme sources de peignes de fréquences, en les rendant plus fiables et plus accessibles à basse énergie. La stratégie est d’améliorer les procédés de fabrications, et de les activer en utilisant des sources laser pulsées.
Lay summary

La génération de peignes de fréquences optiques a été démontrée dans de nombreux types de micro-résonateurs avec des sources laser continues. La faible efficacité énergétique de ces sources, ainsi que la difficulté de produire des micro-résonateurs à large échelle, ont grandement limité leurs applications concrètes.

La stratégie de ce projet était d’exploiter le nouveau procédé de fabrication inventé par l’EPFL pour les micro-résonateurs intégrés basés sur le nitrure de silicium. Ce procédé permet de réduire les aspérités et défauts de fabrications des résonateurs, améliorant ainsi leur efficacité en limitant les pertes optiques. L’autre objectif était d’employer la technique d’illumination démontrée par le CSEM qui consiste à utiliser une source laser pulsée.

Ce projet a permis d’atteindre des performances inimaginables juste quatre ans auparavant, et cela avec un procédé de fabrication qui peut être appliqué à large échelle. L’illumination par laser pulsé assure ensuite que ces résonateurs sont utilisés de manière optimale. La pertinence de ces micro-résonateurs intégrés en nitrure de silicium est maintenant démontrée dans les LIDARs, et amplificateurs paramétriques. Les brevets ont été déposés pour cette technologie, et la start-up DEEPLIGHT SA a été fondée pour capitaliser sur le succès de ce projet et concrétiser sa commercialisation.

De par leur efficacité énergétique, les micro-résonateurs intégrés en nitrure de silicium offrent une plateforme idéale pour la recherche sur les phénomènes photoniques et quantiques. Cette même efficacité promet un impact sociétal à travers leur rôle dans les technologies du futur tels que la vision artificielle LIDAR, et la télécommunication massivement parallèle.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 27.06.2022

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Compact, spatial-mode-interaction-free, ultralow-loss, nonlinear photonic integrated circuits
Ji Xinru, Liu Junqiu, He Jijun, Wang Rui Ning, Qiu Zheru, Riemensberger Johann, Kippenberg Tobias J. (2022), Compact, spatial-mode-interaction-free, ultralow-loss, nonlinear photonic integrated circuits, in Communications Physics, 5(1), 84-84.
Platicon microcomb generation using laser self-injection locking
Lihachev Grigory, Weng Wenle, Liu Junqiu, Chang Lin, Guo Joel, He Jijun, Wang Rui Ning, Anderson Miles H., Liu Yang, Bowers John E., Kippenberg Tobias J. (2022), Platicon microcomb generation using laser self-injection locking, in Nature Communications, 13(1), 1771-1771.
A photonic integrated circuit–based erbium-doped amplifier
Liu Yang, Qiu Zheru, Ji Xinru, Lukashchuk Anton, He Jijun, Riemensberger Johann, Hafermann Martin, Wang Rui Ning, Liu Junqiu, Ronning Carsten, Kippenberg Tobias J. (2022), A photonic integrated circuit–based erbium-doped amplifier, in Science, 376(6599), 1309-1313.
Near ultraviolet photonic integrated lasers based on silicon nitride
Siddharth Anat, Wunderer Thomas, Lihachev Grigory, Voloshin Andrey S., Haller Camille, Wang Rui Ning, Teepe Mark, Yang Zhihong, Liu Junqiu, Riemensberger Johann, Grandjean Nicolas, Johnson Noble, Kippenberg Tobias J. (2022), Near ultraviolet photonic integrated lasers based on silicon nitride, in APL Photonics, 7(4), 046108-046108.
Silicon nitride waveguide polarization rotator and polarization beam splitter for chip-scale atomic systems
Gallacher Kevin, Griffin Paul F., Riis Erling, Sorel Marc, Paul Douglas J. (2022), Silicon nitride waveguide polarization rotator and polarization beam splitter for chip-scale atomic systems, in APL Photonics, 7(4), 046101-046101.
Integrated photonics enables continuous-beam electron phase modulation
Henke Jan-Wilke, Raja Arslan Sajid, Feist Armin, Huang Guanhao, Arend Germaine, Yang Yujia, Kappert F. Jasmin, Wang Rui Ning, Möller Marcel, Pan Jiahe, Liu Junqiu, Kfir Ofer, Ropers Claus, Kippenberg Tobias J. (2021), Integrated photonics enables continuous-beam electron phase modulation, in Nature, 600(7890), 653-658.
High-yield, wafer-scale fabrication of ultralow-loss, dispersion-engineered silicon nitride photonic circuits
Liu Junqiu, Huang Guanhao, Wang Rui Ning, He Jijun, Raja Arslan S., Liu Tianyi, Engelsen Nils J., Kippenberg Tobias J. (2021), High-yield, wafer-scale fabrication of ultralow-loss, dispersion-engineered silicon nitride photonic circuits, in Nature Communications, 12(1), 2236-2236.
Ultrafast optical circuit switching for data centers using integrated soliton microcombs
Raja Arslan Sajid, Lange Sophie, Karpov Maxim, Shi Kai, Fu Xin, Behrendt Raphael, Cletheroe Daniel, Lukashchuk Anton, Haller Istvan, Karinou Fotini, Thomsen Benn, Jozwik Krzysztof, Liu Junqiu, Costa Paolo, Kippenberg Tobias Jan, Ballani Hitesh (2021), Ultrafast optical circuit switching for data centers using integrated soliton microcombs, in Nature Communications, 12(1), 5867-5867.
Dynamics of soliton self-injection locking in optical microresonators
Voloshin Andrey S., Kondratiev Nikita M., Lihachev Grigory V., Liu Junqiu, Lobanov Valery E., Dmitriev Nikita Yu., Weng Wenle, Kippenberg Tobias J., Bilenko Igor A. (2021), Dynamics of soliton self-injection locking in optical microresonators, in Nature Communications, 12(1), 235-235.
Stable and compact RF-to-optical link using lithium niobate on insulator waveguides
Obrzud Ewelina, Denis Séverine, Sattari Hamed, Choong Gregory, Kundermann Stefan, Dubochet Olivier, Despont Michel, Lecomte Steve, Ghadimi Amir H., Brasch Victor (2021), Stable and compact RF-to-optical link using lithium niobate on insulator waveguides, in APL Photonics, 6(12), 121303-121303.
Magnetic-free silicon nitride integrated optical isolator
Tian Hao, Liu Junqiu, Siddharth Anat, Wang Rui Ning, Blésin Terence, He Jijun, Kippenberg Tobias J., Bhave Sunil A. (2021), Magnetic-free silicon nitride integrated optical isolator, in Nature Photonics, 15(11), 828-836.
Entanglement swapping between independent and asynchronous integrated photon-pair sources
Samara Farid, Maring Nicolas, Martin Anthony, Raja Arslan S, Kippenberg Tobias J, Zbinden Hugo, Thew Rob (2021), Entanglement swapping between independent and asynchronous integrated photon-pair sources, in Quantum Science and Technology, 6(4), 045024-045024.
Laser soliton microcombs heterogeneously integrated on silicon
Xiang Chao, Liu Junqiu, Guo Joel, Chang Lin, Wang Rui Ning, Weng Wenle, Peters Jonathan, Xie Weiqiang, Zhang Zeyu, Riemensberger Johann, Selvidge Jennifer, Kippenberg Tobias J., Bowers John E. (2021), Laser soliton microcombs heterogeneously integrated on silicon, in Science, 373(6550), 99-103.
Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum via pulse-driven Kerr microresonator solitons
Anderson Miles H., Bouchand Romain, Liu Junqiu, Weng Wenle, Obrzud Ewelina, Herr Tobias, Kippenberg Tobias J. (2021), Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum via pulse-driven Kerr microresonator solitons, in Optica, 8(6), 771-771.
Low-Loss Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits with Layered Semiconductor Materials
He Jijun, Paradisanos Ioannis, Liu Tianyi, Cadore Alisson R., Liu Junqiu, Churaev Mikhail, Wang Rui Ning, Raja Arslan S., Javerzac-Galy Clément, Roelli Philippe, Fazio Domenico De, Rosa Barbara L. T., Tongay Sefaattin, Soavi Giancarlo, Ferrari Andrea C., Kippenberg Tobias J. (2021), Low-Loss Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits with Layered Semiconductor Materials, in Nano Letters, 21(7), 2709-2718.
Hybrid integrated photonics using bulk acoustic resonators
Tian Hao, Liu Junqiu, Dong Bin, Skehan J. Connor, Zervas Michael, Kippenberg Tobias J., Bhave Sunil A. (2020), Hybrid integrated photonics using bulk acoustic resonators, in Nature Communications, 11(1), 3073-3073.
Heteronuclear soliton molecules in optical microresonators
Weng Wenle, Bouchand Romain, Lucas Erwan, Obrzud Ewelina, Herr Tobias, Kippenberg Tobias J. (2020), Heteronuclear soliton molecules in optical microresonators, in Nature Communications, 11(1), 2402-2402.
Reconfigurable radiofrequency filters based on versatile soliton microcombs
Hu Jianqi, He Jijun, Liu Junqiu, Raja Arslan S., Karpov Maxim, Lukashchuk Anton, Kippenberg Tobias J., Brès Camille-Sophie (2020), Reconfigurable radiofrequency filters based on versatile soliton microcombs, in Nature Communications, 11(1), 4377-4377.
Broadband quasi-phase-matching in dispersion-engineered all-optically poled silicon nitride waveguides
Nitiss Edgars, Zabelich Boris, Yakar Ozan, Liu Junqiu, Wang Rui Ning, Kippenberg Tobias J., Brès Camille-Sophie (2020), Broadband quasi-phase-matching in dispersion-engineered all-optically poled silicon nitride waveguides, in Photonics Research, 8(9), 1475-1475.
Photonic microwave generation in the X- and K-band using integrated soliton microcombs
Liu Junqiu, Lucas Erwan, Raja Arslan S., He Jijun, Riemensberger Johann, Wang Rui Ning, Karpov Maxim, Guo Hairun, Bouchand Romain, Kippenberg Tobias J. (2020), Photonic microwave generation in the X- and K-band using integrated soliton microcombs, in Nature Photonics, 14(8), 486-491.
Monolithic piezoelectric control of soliton microcombs
Liu Junqiu, Tian Hao, Lucas Erwan, Raja Arslan S., Lihachev Grigory, Wang Rui Ning, He Jijun, Liu Tianyi, Anderson Miles H., Weng Wenle, Bhave Sunil A., Kippenberg Tobias J. (2020), Monolithic piezoelectric control of soliton microcombs, in Nature, 583(7816), 385-390.
Chip-based soliton microcomb module using a hybrid semiconductor laser
Raja Arslan S., Liu Junqiu, Volet Nicolas, Wang Rui Ning, He Jijun, Lucas Erwan, Bouchandand Romain, Morton Paul, Bowers John, Kippenberg Tobias J. (2020), Chip-based soliton microcomb module using a hybrid semiconductor laser, in Optics Express, 28(3), 2714-2714.
Observation of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Silicon Nitride Integrated Waveguides
Gyger Flavien, Liu Junqiu, Yang Fan, He Jijun, Raja Arslan S., Wang Rui Ning, Bhave Sunil A., Kippenberg Tobias J., Thévenaz Luc (2020), Observation of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Silicon Nitride Integrated Waveguides, in Physical Review Letters, 124(1), 013902-013902.
Visible blue-to-red 10 GHz frequency comb via on-chip triple-sum-frequency generation
Obrzud Ewelina, Brasch Victor, Voumard Thibault, Stroganov Anton, Geiselmann Michael, Wildi François, Pepe Francesco, Lecomte Steve, Herr Tobias (2019), Visible blue-to-red 10 GHz frequency comb via on-chip triple-sum-frequency generation, in Optics Letters, 44(21), 5290-5290.
Nonlinear filtering of an optical pulse train using dissipative Kerr solitons
Brasch Victor, Obrzud Ewelina, Lecomte Steve, Herr Tobias (2019), Nonlinear filtering of an optical pulse train using dissipative Kerr solitons, in Optica, 6(11), 1386-1386.
Thermally stable access to microresonator solitons via slow pump modulation
Wildi Thibault, Brasch Victor, Liu Junqiu, Kippenberg Tobias J., Herr Tobias (2019), Thermally stable access to microresonator solitons via slow pump modulation, in Optics Letters, 44(18), 4447-4447.
Frequency comb up- and down-conversion in synchronously driven χ (2) optical microresonators
Herr Simon J., Brasch Victor, Szabados Jan, Obrzud Ewelina, Jia Yuechen, Lecomte Steve, Buse Karsten, Breunig Ingo, Herr Tobias (2018), Frequency comb up- and down-conversion in synchronously driven χ (2) optical microresonators, in Optics Letters, 43(23), 5745-5745.
Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators
Kippenberg Tobias J., Gaeta Alexander L., Lipson Michal, Gorodetsky Michael L. (2018), Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators, in Science, 361(6402), eaan8083-eaan8083.

Datasets

A photonic integrated circuit–based erbium-doped amplifier

Author Liu, Yang; Qiu, Zheru; Ji, Xinru; Lukashchuk, Anton; He, Jijun; Riemensberger, Johann; Hafermann, Martin; Wang, Rui Ning; Liu, Junqiu; Ronning, Carsten; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 17.06.2022
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.6515905
Repository zenodo
Abstract
Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers revolutionized long-haul optical communications and laser technology. Erbium ions could provide a basis for efficient optical amplification in photonic integrated circuits but their use remains impractical as a result of insufficient output power. We demonstrate a photonic integrated circuit-based erbium amplifier reaching 145 milliwatts of output power and more than 30 decibels of small-signal gain-on par with commercial fiber amplifiers and surpassing state-of-the-art III-V heterogeneously integrated semiconductor amplifiers. We apply ion implantation to ultralow-loss silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) photonic integrated circuits, which are able to increase the soliton microcomb output power by 100 times, achieving power requirements for low-noise photonic microwave generation and wavelength-division multiplexing optical communications. Endowing Si 3 N 4 photonic integrated circuits with gain enables the miniaturization of various fiber-based devices such as high-pulse-energy femtosecond mode-locked lasers.

Chip-based soliton microcomb module using a hybrid semiconductor laser

Author Raja, Arslan S.; Liu, Junqiu; Volet, Nicolas; Wang, Rui Ning; He, Jijun; Lucas, Erwan; Bouchandand, Romain; Morton, Paul; Bowers, John; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 21.01.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.3556401
Repository zenodo


Data and code for figures: Compact, spatial-mode-interaction-free, ultralow-loss, nonlinear photonic integrated circuits

Author Ji, Xinru; Liu, Junqiu; He, Jijun; Wang, Rui Ning; Qiu, Zheru; Riemensberger, Johann; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 07.12.2022
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.5844709
Repository zenodo
Abstract
Abstract Multi-mode waveguides are ubiquitously used in integrated photonics. Although interaction among different spatial waveguide eigenmodes can induce novel nonlinear phenomena, spatial mode interaction is typically undesired. Adiabatic bends, such as Euler bends, have been favoured to suppress spatial mode interaction. Here, we adapt and optimize Euler bends to build compact racetrack microresonators based on ultralow-loss, multi-mode, silicon nitride photonic integrated circuits. The racetrack microresonators feature a footprint of only 0.21 mm 2 for 19.8 GHz free spectral range, suitable for tight photonic integration. We quantitatively investigate the suppression of spatial mode interaction in the racetrack microresonators with Euler bends. We show that the low optical loss rate (15.5 MHz) is preserved, on par with the mode interaction strength (25 MHz). This results in an unperturbed microresonator dispersion profile. We further generate a single dissipative Kerr soliton of 19.8 GHz repetition rate without complex laser tuning schemes or auxiliary lasers. The optimized Euler bends and racetrack microresonators can be building blocks for integrated nonlinear photonic systems, as well as linear circuits for programmable processors or photonic quantum computing.

Dynamics of soliton self-injection locking in optical microresonators

Author Voloshin, Andrey S.; Kondratiev, Nikita M.; Lihachev, Grigory V.; Liu, Junqiu; Lobanov, Valery E.; Dmitriev, Nikita Yu.; Weng, Wenle; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Bilenko, Igor A.
Publication date 11.12.2021
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/ zenodo.4079515
Repository zenodo
Abstract
AbstractSoliton microcombs constitute chip-scale optical frequency combs, and have the potential to impact a myriad of applications from frequency synthesis and telecommunications to astronomy. The demonstration of soliton formation via self-injection locking of the pump laser to the microresonator has significantly relaxed the requirement on the external driving lasers. Yet to date, the nonlinear dynamics of this process has not been fully understood. Here, we develop an original theoretical model of the laser self-injection locking to a nonlinear microresonator, i.e., nonlinear self-injection locking, and construct state-of-the-art hybrid integrated soliton microcombs with electronically detectable repetition rate of 30 GHz and 35 GHz, consisting of a DFB laser butt-coupled to a silicon nitride microresonator chip. We reveal that the microresonator’s Kerr nonlinearity significantly modifies the laser diode behavior and the locking dynamics, forcing laser emission frequency to be red-detuned. A novel technique to study the soliton formation dynamics as well as the repetition rate evolution in real-time uncover non-trivial features of the soliton self-injection locking, including soliton generation at both directions of the diode current sweep. Our findings provide the guidelines to build electrically driven integrated microcomb devices that employ full control of the rich dynamics of laser self-injection locking, key for future deployment of microcombs for system applications.

Data and code for figures: Frequency division using a soliton-injected semiconductor gain-switched frequency comb

Author Herr, Simon J.; Brasch, Victor; Szabados, Jan; Obrzud, Ewelina; Jia, Yuechen; Lecomte, Steve; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo; Herr, Tobias
Publication date 21.11.2018
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.3876291
Repository zenodo


Heteronuclear soliton molecules in optical microresonators

Author Weng, Wenle; Bouchand, Romain; Lucas, Erwan; Obrzud, Ewelina; Herr, Tobias; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 14.12.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.3668714
Repository zenodo
Abstract
AbstractOptical soliton molecules are bound states of solitons that arise from the balance between attractive and repulsive effects. Having been observed in systems ranging from optical fibres to mode-locked lasers, they provide insights into the fundamental interactions between solitons and the underlying dynamics of the nonlinear systems. Here, we enter the multistability regime of a Kerr microresonator to generate superpositions of distinct soliton states that are pumped at the same optical resonance, and report the discovery of heteronuclear dissipative Kerr soliton molecules. Ultrafast electrooptical sampling reveals the tightly short-range bound nature of such soliton molecules, despite comprising cavity solitons of dissimilar amplitudes, durations and carrier frequencies. Besides the significance they hold in resolving soliton dynamics in complex nonlinear systems, such heteronuclear soliton molecules yield coherent frequency combs whose unusual mode structure may find applications in metrology and spectroscopy.

High-yield, wafer-scale fabrication of ultralow-loss, dispersion-engineered silicon nitride photonic circuits

Author Liu, Junqiu; Huang, Guanhao; Wang, Rui Ning; He, Jijun; Raja, Arslan S.; Liu, Tianyi; Engelsen, Nils J.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 16.12.2021
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.4273990
Repository zenodo
Abstract
Abstract Low-loss photonic integrated circuits and microresonators have enabled a wide range of applications, such as narrow-linewidth lasers and chip-scale frequency combs. To translate these into a widespread technology, attaining ultralow optical losses with established foundry manufacturing is critical. Recent advances in integrated Si 3 N 4 photonics have shown that ultralow-loss, dispersion-engineered microresonators with quality factors Q > 10 × 10 6 can be attained at die-level throughput. Yet, current fabrication techniques do not have sufficiently high yield and performance for existing and emerging applications, such as integrated travelling-wave parametric amplifiers that require meter-long photonic circuits. Here we demonstrate a fabrication technology that meets all requirements on wafer-level yield, performance and length scale. Photonic microresonators with a mean Q factor exceeding 30 × 10 6 , corresponding to 1.0 dB m −1 optical loss, are obtained over full 4-inch wafers, as determined from a statistical analysis of tens of thousands of optical resonances, and confirmed via cavity ringdown with 19 ns photon storage time. The process operates over large areas with high yield, enabling 1-meter-long spiral waveguides with 2.4 dB m −1 loss in dies of only 5 × 5 mm 2 size. Using a response measurement self-calibrated via the Kerr nonlinearity, we reveal that the intrinsic absorption-limited Q factor of our Si 3 N 4 microresonators can exceed 2 × 10 8 . This absorption loss is sufficiently low such that the Kerr nonlinearity dominates the microresonator’s response even in the audio frequency band. Transferring this Si 3 N 4 technology to commercial foundries can significantly improve the performance and capabilities of integrated photonics.

Integrated photonics enables continuous-beam electron phase modulation

Author Henke, Jan-Wilke; Raja, Arslan Sajid; Feist, Armin; Huang, Guanhao; Arend, Germaine; Yang, Yujia; Kappert, F. Jasmin; Wang, Rui Ning; Möller, Marcel; Pan, Jiahe; Liu, Junqiu; Kfir, Ofer; Ropers, Claus; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 23.12.2021
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.5575752
Repository zenodo
Abstract
Abstract Integrated photonics facilitates extensive control over fundamental light-matter interactions in manifold quantum systems including atoms 1 , trapped ions 2,3 , quantum dots 4 and defect centres 5 . Ultrafast electron microscopy has recently made free-electron beams the subject of laser-based quantum manipulation and characterization 6-11 , enabling the observation of free-electron quantum walks 12-14 , attosecond electron pulses 10,15-17 and holographic electromagnetic imaging 18 . Chip-based photonics 19,20 promises unique applications in nanoscale quantum control and sensing but remains to be realized in electron microscopy. Here we merge integrated photonics with electron microscopy, demonstrating coherent phase modulation of a continuous electron beam using a silicon nitride microresonator. The high-finesse ( Q0 ≈ 10 6 ) cavity enhancement and a waveguide designed for phase matching lead to efficient electron-light scattering at extremely low, continuous-wave optical powers. Specifically, we fully deplete the initial electron state at a cavity-coupled power of only 5.35 microwatts and generate >500 electron energy sidebands for several milliwatts. Moreover, we probe unidirectional intracavity fields with microelectronvolt resolution in electron-energy-gain spectroscopy 21 . The fibre-coupled photonic structures feature single-optical-mode electron-light interaction with full control over the input and output light. This approach establishes a versatile and highly efficient framework for enhanced electron beam control in the context of laser phase plates 22 , beam modulators and continuous-wave attosecond pulse trains 23 , resonantly enhanced spectroscopy 24-26 and dielectric laser acceleration 19,20,27 . Our work introduces a universal platform for exploring free-electron quantum optics 28-31 , with potential future developments in strong coupling, local quantum probing and electron-photon entanglement.

Open data for "Laser soliton microcombs heterogeneously integrated on silicon"

Author Xiang, Chao; Liu, Junqiu; Guo, Joel; Chang, Lin; Wang, Rui Ning; Weng, Wenle; Peters, Jonathan; Xie, Weiqiang; Zhang, Zeyu; Riemensberger, Johann; Selvidge, Jennifer; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Bowers, John E.
Publication date 02.07.2021
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.4745864
Repository zenodo
Abstract
Chip-based frequency combs The realization of optical frequency combs, light sources with precisely spaced frequencies across a broad spectrum of wavelengths, in dielectric microresonators has affected a range of applications from imaging and ranging to precision time keeping and metrology. Xiang et al. demonstrate that the entire system, the laser-pumping system and the comb-generating microresonators, can be combined into an integrated silicon-based platform. Compatibility with foundry fabrication methods will enable this innovation to have a major impact on coherent communications, optical interconnects, and low-noise microwave generation. Science , abh2076, this issue p. 99

Low-Loss Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits with Layered Semiconductor Materials

Author He, Jijun; Paradisanos, Ioannis; Liu, Tianyi; Cadore, Alisson R.; Liu, Junqiu; Churaev, Mikhail; Wang, Rui Ning; Raja, Arslan S.; Javerzac-Galy, Clément; Roelli, Philippe; Fazio, Domenico De; Rosa, Barbara L. T.; Tongay, Sefaattin; Soavi, Giancarlo; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 14.04.2021
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.4527176
Repository zenodo


Magnetic-Free Silicon Nitride Integrated Optical Isolator (Original Data)

Author Tian, Hao; Liu, Junqiu; Siddharth, Anat; Wang, Rui Ning; Blésin, Terence; He, Jijun; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Bhave, Sunil A.
Publication date 21.11.2021
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.5120854
Repository zenodo


Monolithic piezoelectric control of soliton microcombs

Author Liu, Junqiu; Tian, Hao; Lucas, Erwan; Raja, Arslan S.; Lihachev, Grigory; Wang, Rui Ning; He, Jijun; Liu, Tianyi; Anderson, Miles H.; Weng, Wenle; Bhave, Sunil A.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 16.07.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.3903724
Repository zenodo


Near ultraviolet photonic integrated lasers based on silicon nitride

Author Siddharth, Anat; Wunderer, Thomas; Lihachev, Grigory; Voloshin, Andrey S.; Haller, Camille; Wang, Rui Ning; Teepe, Mark; Yang, Zhihong; Liu, Junqiu; Riemensberger, Johann; Grandjean, Nicolas; Johnson, Noble; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 01.04.2022
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.1063/5.0081660
Repository zenodo
Abstract
Low phase noise lasers based on the combination of III-V semiconductors and silicon photonics are well established in the near-infrared spectral regime. Recent advances in the development of low-loss silicon nitride-based photonic integrated resonators have allowed them to outperform bulk external diode and fiber lasers in both phase noise and frequency agility in the 1550 nm-telecommunication window. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a hybrid integrated laser composed of a gallium nitride-based laser diode and a silicon nitride photonic chip-based microresonator operating at record low wavelengths as low as 410 nm in the near-ultraviolet wavelength region suitable for addressing atomic transitions of atoms and ions used in atomic clocks, quantum computing, or for underwater LiDAR. By self-injection locking of the Fabry-Pérot diode laser to a high-Q (0.4 × 10 6 ) photonic integrated microresonator, we reduce the optical phase noise at 461 nm by a factor greater than 100×, limited by the device quality factor and back-reflection.

Observation of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Silicon Nitride Integrated Waveguides

Author Gyger, Flavien; Liu, Junqiu; Yang, Fan; He, Jijun; Raja, Arslan S.; Wang, Rui Ning; Bhave, Sunil A.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Thévenaz, Luc
Publication date 03.01.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.3568424
Repository zenodo


Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum via pulse-driven Kerr microresonator solitons

Author Anderson, Miles H.; Bouchand, Romain; Liu, Junqiu; Weng, Wenle; Obrzud, Ewelina; Herr, Tobias; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 24.05.2021
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.4750315
Repository zenodo


Photonic microwave generation in the X- and K-band using integrated soliton microcombs

Author Liu, Junqiu; Lucas, Erwan; Raja, Arslan S.; He, Jijun; Riemensberger, Johann; Wang, Rui Ning; Karpov, Maxim; Guo, Hairun; Bouchand, Romain; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 01.08.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.3666737
Repository zenodo


Platicon microcomb generation using laser self-injection locking

Author Lihachev, Grigory; Weng, Wenle; Liu, Junqiu; Chang, Lin; Guo, Joel; He, Jijun; Wang, Rui Ning; Anderson, Miles H.; Liu, Yang; Bowers, John E.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 01.12.2022
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.5809186
Repository zenodo
Abstract
Abstract The past decade has witnessed major advances in the development and system-level applications of photonic integrated microcombs, that are coherent, broadband optical frequency combs with repetition rates in the millimeter-wave to terahertz domain. Most of these advances are based on harnessing of dissipative Kerr solitons (DKS) in microresonators with anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD). However, microcombs can also be generated with normal GVD using localized structures that are referred to as dark pulses, switching waves or platicons. Compared with DKS microcombs that require specific designs and fabrication techniques for dispersion engineering, platicon microcombs can be readily built using CMOS-compatible platforms such as thin-film (i.e., thickness below 300 nm) silicon nitride with normal GVD. Here, we use laser self-injection locking to demonstrate a fully integrated platicon microcomb operating at a microwave K-band repetition rate. A distributed feedback (DFB) laser edge-coupled to a Si 3 N 4 chip is self-injection-locked to a high- Q ( > 10 7 ) microresonator with high confinement waveguides, and directly excites platicons without sophisticated active control. We demonstrate multi-platicon states and switching, perform optical feedback phase study and characterize the phase noise of the K-band platicon repetition rate and the pump laser. Laser self-injection-locked platicons could facilitate the wide adoption of microcombs as a building block in photonic integrated circuits via commercial foundry service.

Reconfigurable radiofrequency filters based on versatile soliton microcombs

Author Hu, Jianqi; He, Jijun; Liu, Junqiu; Raja, Arslan S.; Karpov, Maxim; Lukashchuk, Anton; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Brès, Camille-Sophie
Publication date 01.12.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.3902646
Repository zenodo
Abstract
AbstractThe rapidly maturing integrated Kerr microcombs show significant potential for microwave photonics. Yet, state-of-the-art microcomb-based radiofrequency filters have required programmable pulse shapers, which inevitably increase the system cost, footprint, and complexity. Here, by leveraging the smooth spectral envelope of single solitons, we demonstrate microcomb-based radiofrequency filters free from any additional pulse shaping. More importantly, we achieve all-optical reconfiguration of the radiofrequency filters by exploiting the intrinsically rich soliton configurations. Specifically, we harness the perfect soliton crystals to multiply the comb spacing thereby dividing the filter passband frequencies. Also, the versatile spectral interference patterns of two solitons enable wide reconfigurability of filter passband frequencies, according to their relative azimuthal angles within the round-trip. The proposed schemes demand neither an interferometric setup nor another pulse shaper for filter reconfiguration, providing a simplified synthesis of widely reconfigurable microcomb-based radiofrequency filters.

Stable and compact RF-to-optical link using lithium niobate on insulator waveguides

Author Obrzud, Ewelina; Denis, Séverine; Sattari, Hamed; Choong, Gregory; Kundermann, Stefan; Dubochet, Olivier; Despont, Michel; Lecomte, Steve; Ghadimi, Amir H.; Brasch, Victor
Publication date 01.12.2021
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.5571451
Repository zenodo


Ultrafast optical circuit switching for data centers using integrated soliton microcombs

Author Raja, Arslan Sajid; Lange, Sophie; Karpov, Maxim; Shi, Kai; Fu, Xin; Behrendt, Raphael; Cletheroe, Daniel; Lukashchuk, Anton; Haller, Istvan; Karinou, Fotini; Thomsen, Benn; Jozwik, Krzysztof; Liu, Junqiu; Costa, Paolo; Kippenberg, Tobias Jan; Ballani, Hitesh
Publication date 15.12.2021
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.4588562
Repository zenodo
Abstract
Abstract Due to the slowdown of Moore’s law, it will become increasingly challenging to efficiently scale the network in current data centers utilizing electrical packet switches as data rates grow. Optical circuit switches (OCS) represent an appealing option to overcome this issue by eliminating the need for expensive and power-hungry transceivers and electrical switches in the core of the network. In particular, optical switches based on tunable lasers and arrayed waveguide grating routers are quite promising due to the use of a passive core, which increases fault tolerance and reduces management overhead. Such an OCS-network can offer high bandwidth, low network latency and an energy-efficient and scalable data center network. To support dynamic data center workloads efficiently, however, it is critical to switch between wavelengths at nanosecond (ns) timescales. Here we demonstrate ultrafast OCS based on a microcomb and semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). Using a photonic integrated Si 3 N 4 microcomb, sub-ns (<520 ps) switching along with the 25-Gbps non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and 50-Gbps four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) burst mode data transmission is achieved. Further, we use a photonic integrated circuit comprising an Indium phosphide based SOA array and an arrayed waveguide grating to show sub-ns switching (<900 ps) along with 25-Gbps NRZ burst mode transmission providing a path towards a more scalable and energy-efficient wavelength-switched network for data centers in the post Moore’s Law era.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Karlsruhe KIT / Prof. Koos Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Menlo Systems GmbH / Prof. Holzwarth Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
University of California Santa Barbara United States of America (North America)
- Publication
University of Purdue United States of America (North America)
- Publication
LIGENTEC Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
University of Freiburg, Prof. Buse Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
MWP2021 – 2021 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Talk given at a conference Photonic microwave generation in the X-and K-band using integrated soliton microcombs 15.11.2021 Online event due to COVID, Italy Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
ACP 2021 – Asia Communications and Photonics Conference Talk given at a conference Photonic-chip based Frequency Combs 24.10.2021 Shanghai, China Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
IEEE Photonics Conference 2021 Talk given at a conference Soliton Microcombs: from dissipative structures to coherent LiDAR 18.10.2021 Online event due to COVID, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
Photonic Integrated Circuits Workshop: from telecom to sensing, Swissphotonics Individual talk Nonlinear Hybrid Integrated Photonics 23.06.2021 Online event due to COVID, Switzerland Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO USA Talk given at a conference High-Yield Wafer-Scale Fabrication of Ultralow-Loss Dispersion-Engineered Si3N4 PIC 09.05.2021 San José, California (online event due to COVID), United States of America Liu Junqiu;
OFC 2021 Talk given at a conference On-chip Combs and Laser Integration: Architecture, Performance, and Key Technological Challenges 05.03.2021 San Francisco (online event due to COVID), United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
IEEE RAPID 2020 Talk given at a conference Photonic Integrated Soliton Microcombs 10.08.2020 online event due to COVID, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
Physics of Quantum Electronics 20 (PQE) Individual talk Photonic-chip based soliton microcombs 05.01.2020 Snowbird (online event due to COVID), United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO/Europe-EQEC Talk given at a conference Frequency combs in synchronously driven optical microresonators 23.06.2019 Munich, Germany Herr Tobias;
CLEO USA Talk given at a conference Dual comb generation in a monochromatically driven crystalline microresonator 05.05.2019 San Jose, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO USA Talk given at a conference Dual Comb Generation in a Symmetrically Driven Crystalline Microresonator 05.05.2019 San Jose, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO: Science and Innovations Talk given at a conference Noise Filtering in Synchronously-driven Kerr Frequency Combs 05.05.2019 San Jose, United States of America Herr Tobias; Brasch Victor;
CLEO USA Talk given at a conference Kerr Comb-based Transfer Oscillator for Ultralow Noise Photonic Microwave Synthesis 05.05.2019 San Jose, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO USA Talk given at a conference Broadband Efficient Soliton Microcombs in Pulse-Driven Photonic Microresonators 05.05.2019 San Jose, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan; Liu Junqiu;
European Conference on Optical Communication Talk given at a conference Synchronously-driven microresonator solitons and application in astronomy 23.09.2018 Rome, Italy Kippenberg Tobias Jan; Herr Tobias;
Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim Talk given at a conference Pulse-driven Microresonator Solitons 29.07.2018 Hongkong, Hongkong Herr Tobias;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media New tech builds ultralow-loss integrated photonic circuits International 2021
Media relations: print media, online media Scalable manufacturing of integrated optical frequency combs International 2021
Media relations: print media, online media Ultrafast optical switching can save overwhelmed datacenters International 2021
Media relations: print media, online media Microcomb-injected pulsed lasers as variable microwave gears International 2020
Media relations: print media, online media Photonic microwave generation using on-chip optical frequency combs International 2020
Media relations: print media, online media Shaking light with sound International 2020
Media relations: print media, online media Speeding up long-range coherent LiDAR International 2020

Awards

Title Year
2021 R.W. Wood Prize For pioneering contributions to the realization of chip-scale optical frequency combs 2021
EPFL Doctorate Award 2021 For groundbreaking experiments in the field of chip-scale frequency combs and the extraordinary record of scientific accomplishments. 2021
Nature Photonics Best Student Paper Award 2019

Use-inspired outputs


Start-ups

Name Year

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
192293 Soliton Microcombs: Exploring driven dissipative Kerr cavities 01.06.2020 Project funding
193689 BLUVES - BLue to UV Extreme precision astronomical Spectroscopy 01.11.2020 Sinergia
165933 Microresonators based Frequency combs: exploring temporal solitons 01.03.2017 Project funding
161573 Photonic Damascene Fabrication Process for High Q integrated SiN Photonic Circuits 01.04.2016 precoR
204927 Cavity Quantum Electro-optomechanics 01.12.2021 Project funding
198164 ICP-CVD of silicon nitride and silicon oxide for novel integrated photonics and MEMS devices 01.03.2021 R'EQUIP

Abstract

Photonic integrated circuits (PIC), i.e. photonic waveguide technology fabricated via established semiconductor processing, have within a timeframe of about 15 years, transitioned from research into commercial applications, such as optical datacenters. Currently, a further PIC technology is at the crossroad of making this transition in the coming years: Specifically, Kerr-nonlinear silicon nitride (Si3N4) microresonator based frequency comb generators. Such compact, chip-scale combs are a disruptive technology to various fields with applications in broadband, coherent optical spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, timekeeping, signal generation, optical sensing and laser ranging as well as high-bandwidth optical telecommunication. The present research consortium (EPFL & CSEM) have been at the forefront of these technological developments, which include the first demonstration of low noise ultra-short soliton pulse sources in PIC (EPFL, Science 2015 & Nature Photonics 2013), ultra-efficient pulsed optical pumping of microresonators (CSEM, Nature Photonics 2016, in revision) and most recently coherent optical communication over 70 km with data rates exceeding 30 Tb/s using EPFL’s chip based frequency comb generators 5 (Nature, 2017, in press). An important advance towards the commercial use of Si3N4 nonlinear photonic waveguides has been the development of novel fabrication method, the photonic damascene process, at EPFL that has overcome the materials processing issue related to the high stress. This process, developed and optimized in the precoR program, is now transitioning outside of the laboratory, and part of the process portfolio of LiGenTec SA, a spinoff from EPFL that is making Si3N4 widely available to academics and industry alike. EPFL’s photonic damascene process6, the generation of ultra-short soliton pulses, as well as CSEM’s pulsed optical pumping have been filed as EU and US patents. Yet to date, photonic chipscale frequency combs are not yet part of a commercial product or development. Indeed, the key challenges for the commercialization of chip-scale frequency combs are predominantly their low energy efficiency, which affects optical packaging, choice of availability of laser modules and determines long-term full photonic integration on a chip, and finally market potential for telecommunications. In this project, we aim to address these challenges via two routes that complement each other:First, EPFL will develop novel techniques to produce low loss dispersion engineered photonic integrated waveguides, both with regard to resonator geometry as well as material. Specifically, the resonator’s quality-factor and mode dispersion will be improved to enable broadband optical soliton spectra at significantly lower threshold power than presently the case. A key challenge, that of efficient input coupling to the PIC, will be solved via a novel 3D tapered waveguide. Second, CSEM will develop pulsed optical pumping for driving and controlling ultra-short soliton pulses in the PIC fabricated by EPFL. Pumping the PICs with temporally structured light will not only allow for substantial reduction of required pump laser power, but will also allow for control and stabilization of soliton pulse number, soliton repetition rate and carrier-envelope offset frequency.The outcome of the project will provide the technology for compact PIC based frequency combs with 2-4 orders of magnitude increased energy efficiency and intrinsic stabilization bridging the gap between academic research and commercialization of PIC based frequency comb generators.
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