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Distribution and function of ‘partitive articles’ in Romance (DiFuPaRo): a microvariation analysis

English title Distribution and function of ‘partitive articles’ in Romance (DiFuPaRo): a microvariation analysis
Applicant Stark Elisabeth
Number 172751
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Romanisches Seminar Universität Zürich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Romance languages and literature
Start/End 01.06.2018 - 30.06.2022
Approved amount 492'661.00
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Keywords (7)

partitive articles; mass nouns; nominal morphosyntax; microvariation; quantified expressions; indefinite determiners; North Western Romance languages

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
La recherche linguistique de ces cinquante dernières années a démontré que l’existence de certaines propriétés grammaticales implique l’existence d’autres propriétés dans la même langue (clusters de propriétés). Dans ce projet, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont certaines langues romanes, apparemment similaires, exhibent des propriétés linguistiques variables, surtout l’existence de l’« article partitif », tel que du/del en français/italien/francoprovençal, qui distingue ces langues d’autres langues romanes comme l’espagnol.
Lay summary

Contenu et objectifs

Dans ce projet, nous allons étudier l’italien standard et le français standard, plus leurs variétés vernaculaires, et celles du francoprovençal et du ladin. Le but est de (i) comparer leurs propriétés morphosyntaxiques, et (ii) déterminer comment et pourquoi l’article partitif a évolué et s’est répandu dans un espace géographique précis, France - Italie du Nord - Suisse, et non à toutes les langues romanes. Pour ce faire, nous utiliserons des données provenant de bases de données disponibles (OFROM: français oral Suisse; ALAVAL: francoprovençal; ASIt: italien du nord) et, d’autres que nous recueillerons, adoptant les techniques bien établies du travail de terrain. Ces données nous permettrons de modéliser la variation, en particulier la manière dont les éléments morphosyntaxiques encodent des propriétés sémantiques, leur distribution et leur fonction.

Contexte

La découverte et documentation de caractéristiques inconnues dans des variétés romanes en partie menacées nous permettra de comprendre la question du contact entre les langues dans l’explication de la distribution des traits grammaticaux dans l’espace (Bickel 2007).

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 23.04.2018

Lay Summary (Italian)

Lead
La ricerca linguistica degli ultimi cinquant’anni ha provato come l’esistenza di certe proprietà implichi l’esistenza di altre nella stessa lingua: le proprietà linguistiche formano dei cluster. L’obiettivo del progetto è investigare come lingue romanze simili mostrino proprietà variabili; più precisamente, il progetto si focalizza sull’esistenza dell’articolo partitivo, i.e. forme come du/del ‘of the’ in italiano/francese/francoprovenzale, ma non, ad esempio, in spagnolo/portoghese.
Lay summary

Contenuto e obiettivi

Saranno indagati sia il francese e l’italiano standard che le varietà dialettali norditaliane (e.g., il ladino), più il  franco-provenzale. Gli obiettivi sono (i) comparare le proprietà morfosintattiche di queste lingue e identificare cluster che ci permettano (ii) di capire come e perché gli articoli partitivi si siano evoluti e diffusi in una specifica area geografica e non in tutta la Romània. Come mezzi di indagine, utilizzeremo database esistenti (OFROM: francese svizzero colloquiale; ALAVAL: francoprovenzale svizzero; ASIt: dialetti del nord-Italia) e indagini sul campo svolte con tecniche consolidate. I dati ottenuti ci permetteranno di proporre un modello di variazione linguistica riguardo la presenza/assenza degli articoli partitivi e, più in generale, di comprendere come i mezzi morfo-sintattici della lingua codifichino certi tratti semantici.

 

Il progetto non ha una rilevanza puramente descrittivo-teorica, ma permetterà anche di documentare tratti sconosciuti di varietà Romanze in parziale pericolo di estinzione, usate quasi solo in contesti informali. Queste varietà sono molto importanti per riuscire ad approfondire questioni di contatto linguistico e per comprendere i meccanismi dietro la distribuzione dei tratti linguistici nello spazio (Bickel 2007).

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 23.04.2018

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
The linguistic research of the last fifty years has proved that the existence of some grammatical properties implies the existence of others in the same language so that linguistic properties form clusters. The project aims at investigating the way similar Romance languages display variable properties, esp. the existence of “partitive articles”, i.e. forms like du/del, ‘of the’, found in languages like French, Francoprovençal and Italian, but not e.g. in Spanish.
Lay summary

Content and objectives

Our study will target standard Italian and standard French, plus their vernacular varieties, and Francoprovençal and Ladin. The aim is to (i) compare the morphosyntactic properties of these languages, and (ii) determine how and why partitive articles have evolved and spread through a precise geographical domain (France-Northern Italy-part of Switzerland), but not across all Romance. To do so, we will make use of already existing data bases (OFROM: colloquial Swiss French; ALAVAL: Francoprovençal; ASIt: Northern Italian) and gather data of our own, adopting well-established techniques of field work. The pool of data obtained will enable us to find out how variation can be modelled, in particular how morpho-syntactic means encode semantic properties, and the distribution and function of partitive articles in all vernacular varieties under scrutiny.

Context

Besides the gain in linguistic description and analysis, the overall importance of this project lies also in unravelling and documenting unknown features of partially endangered Romance varieties used in informal contexts only, which are highly relevant to understand issues of language contact in the explanation of the distribution of grammatical features in space (Bickel 2007).

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 23.04.2018

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Project partner

Publications

Publication
Special Issue: Partitive Articles and indefiniteness, micro and macrovariation
Poletto Cecilia, Pinzin Francesco (ed.) (2022), Special Issue: Partitive Articles and indefiniteness, micro and macrovariation, Wiley, London/Malden 76(1).
An indefinite maze: on the distribution of partitives and bare nouns in the Northern Italian dialects
Pinzin Francesco, Poletto Cecilia (2022), An indefinite maze: on the distribution of partitives and bare nouns in the Northern Italian dialects, in Isogloss. Open Journal of Romance Linguistics, 8(2), 1-23.
Articoli partitivi e sintagmi nominali indefiniti: distribuzione comparativa nelle lingue dell'Italia del nord
PinzinFrancesco, PolettoCecilia (2022), Articoli partitivi e sintagmi nominali indefiniti: distribuzione comparativa nelle lingue dell'Italia del nord, in Rivista Italiana di Dialettologia, 45(1), 1.
Guide to the DiFuPaRo database
Ihsane Tabea, Davatz Jan, PinzinFrancesco, StarkElisabeth (2022), Guide to the DiFuPaRo database, University of Zurich, Zurich.
Unexpected Partitive Articles in Francoprovençal
Stark Elisabeth, Davatz Jan Pavel (2021), Unexpected Partitive Articles in Francoprovençal, in Studia Linguistica, 76(1), 101-129.
Preverbal Subjects with a Partitive Article: A Comparison Between Aosta Valley Francoprovençal and French*
Ihsane Tabea (2021), Preverbal Subjects with a Partitive Article: A Comparison Between Aosta Valley Francoprovençal and French*, in Studia Linguistica, 76(1), 130-166.
Partitive Articles and indefiniteness, micro and macrovariation
Pinzin Francesco, Poletto Cecilia (2021), Partitive Articles and indefiniteness, micro and macrovariation, in Studia Linguistica, 76(1, Special), 1.
Indefinite Objects in Micro‐variation. A Cross‐linguistic Analysis of the Distribution of Partitives Articles, Bare Nominals and Definite Determiners in Northern Italy
Pinzin Francesco, Poletto Cecilia (2021), Indefinite Objects in Micro‐variation. A Cross‐linguistic Analysis of the Distribution of Partitives Articles, Bare Nominals and Definite Determiners in Northern Italy, in Studia Linguistica, 76(1), 13-55.
Niște en roumain – quantifieur ou déterminant ?
Davatz Jan, Stark Elisabeth (2021), Niște en roumain – quantifieur ou déterminant ?, in Schøsler Lene (ed.), editions de boccard, Paris, 401-414.
Disentangling Bare Nouns and Nominals Introduced by a Partitive Article
Ihsane Tabea (ed.) (2020), Disentangling Bare Nouns and Nominals Introduced by a Partitive Article, Brill, Leiden.
Introduction. Disentangling Bare Nouns and Nominals Introduced by a Partitive Article
IhsaneTabea (2020), Introduction. Disentangling Bare Nouns and Nominals Introduced by a Partitive Article, in Ihsane Tabea (ed.), BRILL, Leiden, 1-16.
Partitive Articles in Aosta Valley Francoprovençal–Old Questions and New Data
GerardsDavid Paul, Stark Elisabeth (2020), Partitive Articles in Aosta Valley Francoprovençal–Old Questions and New Data, in Ihsane Tabea (ed.), BRILL, Leiden, 301-334.
Telicity, Specificity, and Complements with a “Partitive Article” in French
Ihsane Tabea (2020), Telicity, Specificity, and Complements with a “Partitive Article” in French, in Ihsane Tabea (ed.), BRILL, Leiden, 227-261.
Why ‘Partitive Articles’ do not Exist in (Old) Spanish.
Gerards David Paul, Stark Elisabeth (2020), Why ‘Partitive Articles’ do not Exist in (Old) Spanish., in Ihsane Tabea (ed.), BRILL, Leiden, 105-139.
Convergence and divergence in the expression of partitivity in French, Dutch, and German
Sleeman Petra, Ihsane Tabea (2020), Convergence and divergence in the expression of partitivity in French, Dutch, and German, in Linguistics, 58(3), 767-804.
Introduction: Shades of partitivity: Formal and areal properties
Ihsane Tabea, Stark Elisabeth (2020), Introduction: Shades of partitivity: Formal and areal properties, De Gruyter, Berlin 58(3), 605-619.
Partitive objects in negative contexts in Northern Italian Dialects
Garzonio Jacopo, Poletto Cecilia (2020), Partitive objects in negative contexts in Northern Italian Dialects, in Linguistics, 58(3), 621-650.
Special Issue: Shades of partitivity: Formal and areal properties
Stark Elisabeth, Ihsane Tabea (ed.) (2020), Special Issue: Shades of partitivity: Formal and areal properties, De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston.
Exploiting microvariation: How to make the best of your incomplete data
Garzonio Jacopo, Poletto Cecilia (2018), Exploiting microvariation: How to make the best of your incomplete data, in Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, 3(1), 1.
L’etimologia come finestra sulla sintassi: evidenza empirica dai dialetti italiani
PolettoCecilia (2018), L’etimologia come finestra sulla sintassi: evidenza empirica dai dialetti italiani, in Glesgen Martin (ed.), Éditions de linguistique et de philologie, Strasbourg, 107.
Non-Maximal Definites in Romance
GerardsDavid Paul, StarkElisabeth, Non-Maximal Definites in Romance, in Isogloss, 8(3).
Romanian niște between non-specific and specific interpretations
Davatz Jan, Stark Elisabeth, Romanian niște between non-specific and specific interpretations, in Rosenmeyer Malte et al. (ed.), Language Science Press, Berlin.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Partitivity in European Languages: PARTE Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
URPP Language and Space Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
AFLS Conference 2022, Le français au contact des cultures Talk given at a conference Variation dans la détermination nominale en français oral : Fautes ou témoins de contact ? 18.07.2022 Exeter, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Ihsane Tabea; Stark Elisabeth;
'Partitive Articles' in Francoprovençal and in the Northern Italian Dialects: DiFuPaRo closing workshop Talk given at a conference How to make do with what you have got: priming effects in dialectal data, the view from indefinite Partitives 24.06.2022 University of Zurich, Switzerland Poletto Cecilia;
'Partitive Articles' in Francoprovençal and in the Northern Italian Dialects: DiFuPaRo closing workshop Talk given at a conference On the rescuing of some des-indefinites 24.06.2022 University of Zurich, Switzerland Gerards David Paul; Ihsane Tabea; Dobrovie-Sorin Carmen;
'Partitive Articles' in Francoprovençal and in the Northern Italian Dialects: DiFuPaRo closing workshop Talk given at a conference Francoprovençal: what a spatial analysis of ‘partitive articles’ reveals on number marking on nominals 24.06.2022 University of Zurich, Switzerland Ihsane Tabea; Stark Elisabeth; Winistörfer Olivier;
'Partitive Articles' in Francoprovençal and in the Northern Italian Dialects: DiFuPaRo closing workshop Talk given at a conference Is invariable DE an allomorph of the partitive article? The insight from Francoprovençal 24.06.2022 University of Zurich, Switzerland Gerards David Paul; Ihsane Tabea; Stark Elisabeth;
'Partitive Articles' in Francoprovençal and in the Northern Italian Dialects: DiFuPaRo closing workshop Talk given at a conference Francoprovençal nominal morphology: a Network Morphology account 24.06.2022 University of Zurich, Switzerland Stark Elisabeth; Ihsane Tabea; Paciaroni Tania;
Oberseminar Romanistische Linguistik. Invited speaker Individual talk A Network Morphology account of Francoprovençal nominal morphology 22.06.2022 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany Paciaroni Tania;
VI Wedisyn Meeting - Westmost Europe Dialect Syntax Individual talk The distribution of partitive articles in quantity expressions and negative sentences with pas ‘not’ in colloquial Swiss French and neighboring Francoprovençal varieties 03.06.2022 University of Zurich, Switzerland Stark Elisabeth; Ihsane Tabea;
PARTE (Partitivity in European Languages) online talks. Invited speakers Talk given at a conference The spatial distribution of partitive articles and invariable DE in Francoprovençal 27.05.2022 online, Switzerland Winistörfer Olivier; Stark Elisabeth; Ihsane Tabea;
LSRL Talk given at a conference On the status of preverbal indefinite subjects in Romance languages: what Francoprovençal reveals 21.04.2022 University of Wisconsin-madison, United States of America Ihsane Tabea;
Going Romance Partitivity Workshop Talk given at a conference Non-maximal definite articles in Romance. Invited speakers 01.12.2021 ACLC and University of Amsterdam, online, Netherlands Stark Elisabeth; Gerards David Paul;
NEREUS X International Workshop Talk given at a conference Distribution and function of ‘indefinite (non-definite) definite’ articles in Francoprovençal 22.10.2021 University of Freiburg, Germany Stark Elisabeth;
From syntactic structures to society-driven language change. Workshop on the occasion of Thom Westveer’s PhD defence Talk given at a conference The L2 acquisition of the French pronoun en by L1 speakers of German 06.10.2021 University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Ihsane Tabea;
IDARoE – Indefinite definite articles in Romance and English Talk given at a conference Investigating Indefinite Definites: Empirical Approaches 16.07.2021 online, Switzerland Ihsane Tabea; Gerards David Paul;
Online AICED 22 Talk given at a conference The role of L1 in the L2 acquisition of the French pronoun en by L1 speakers of German and L1 speakers of Dutch. Invited speaker 03.06.2021 University of Bucharest, Romania Ihsane Tabea;
PARTE online conference cycle Talk given at a conference Partitive Articles vs. Bare Nouns in Northern Italy, a morphological parameter. Invited speakers 30.04.2021 online, Switzerland Poletto Cecilia;
Going Romance 34 Talk given at a conference Partitive Articles vs. Bare Nouns in Northern Italy, a morphological parameter 26.11.2020 Paris, France Poletto Cecilia;
Online DiFuPaRo workshop Individual talk Presentation of ongoing work 11.06.2020 Zurich / online, Switzerland Davatz Jan; Stark Elisabeth;
Online DiFuPaRo workshop Individual talk Indefinite objects and number marking on the noun, the case from Northern Italian Dialects 11.06.2020 Zurich / online, Switzerland Poletto Cecilia;
Online DiFuPaRo workshop Talk given at a conference Fieldwork in Evolène: preliminary results of the Grammaticality Judgement Test 11.06.2020 ONLINE, Switzerland Ihsane Tabea;
Nanolab, Masaryk University of Brno Talk given at a conference Indefinite objects and number marking on the noun, the case from Northern Italian Dialects 05.06.2020 online, Czech Republic Poletto Cecilia;
Project Presentations URPP Language and Space, Language and Space in Switzerland Individual talk Francoprovençal at the Crossroads 05.03.2020 Zurich, Switzerland Davatz Jan; Ihsane Tabea;
NaP2019: Number and plurality: cross-linguistic variation in the nominal domain Poster Francoprovençal (B): Galloromance varieties without mass vs. plural distinction? 11.12.2019 Göttingen, Germany Davatz Jan;
INaLCO Talk given at a conference "Differential Object Marking in French: Myth or reality?" Differential object marking in Romance - towards microvariation 09.11.2019 Paris, France Stark Elisabeth; Binder Larissa;
NEREUS IX Talk given at a conference Why partitive articles in Romance languages? A comparative morphological account 09.11.2019 Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Germany Gerards David Paul; Stark Elisabeth;
Workshop Around Partitive Articles (Workshop of the DiFuPaRo Project) Talk given at a conference The status of preverbal subjects in French and Francoprovençal 05.11.2019 Frankfurt a.M., Germany Ihsane Tabea;
Workshop Around Partitive Articles (Workshop of the DiFuPaRo Project) Talk given at a conference Unexpected partitives in Francoprovençal 05.11.2019 Frankfurt a.M., Germany Davatz Jan; Stark Elisabeth;
Workshop Around Partitive Articles (Workshop of the DiFuPaRo Project) Talk given at a conference The distribution of Partitives Articles and related phenomena in Northern Italy 05.11.2019 Frankfurt a.M., Germany Poletto Cecilia;
Workshop The syntax and semantics of internal arguments. Invited speaker Talk given at a conference Arguments with a so-called 'partitive article': The subject-object asymmetry in the light of Francoprovençal data. 24.10.2019 Bucharest, Romania Ihsane Tabea;
Romanistentag XXXVI Talk given at a conference Rumänisch "niște" zwischen nicht-spezifischen und spezifischen Lesearten 20.09.2019 Kassel, Germany Davatz Jan; Stark Elisabeth;
PARTE workshop. Partitive case, pronouns and determiners: diachrony and variation Talk given at a conference DiFuPaRo Database: Opening the frontend 03.09.2019 Pavia, Italy Stark Elisabeth; Ihsane Tabea; Davatz Jan; Poletto Cecilia;
PARTE workshop. Partitive case, pronouns and determiners: diachrony and variation Talk given at a conference Oh, partitive article, where art thou? Partitive Articles and indefinite quantities in Northern Italian Dialects 02.09.2019 Pavia, Italy Poletto Cecilia;
PARTE workshop. Partitive case, pronouns and determiners: diachrony and variation Talk given at a conference (Micro-) variation in the distribution of the partitive pronoun in Romance and Germanic 02.09.2019 Pavia, Italy Ihsane Tabea;
PARTE workshop. Partitive case, pronouns and determiners: diachrony and variation Talk given at a conference Unexpected partitive articles in Francoprovençal 02.09.2019 Pavia, Italy Davatz Jan; Stark Elisabeth;
LMU München in honour of Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Wolf-Dieter Stempel's 90th birthday Talk given at a conference Partitivausdrücke und Romanische Dialektologie reloaded: Eindrücke aus dem Frankoprovenzalischen 08.07.2019 Munich, Germany Stark Elisabeth;
CILPR 2019 Talk given at a conference niște en roumain – quantifieur ou déterminant ? 02.07.2019 Copenhaguen, Denmark Davatz Jan; Stark Elisabeth;
Seminari di ricerca in linguistica, University of Venice Individual talk Partitive Articles in French, Italian (and Northern Italian dialects) 09.03.2019 University of Venice, Italy Poletto Cecilia;
Seminari di ricerca in linguistica, University of Padova Individual talk Partitive Articles in French, Italian (and Northern Italian dialects) 05.03.2019 Padova, Italy Poletto Cecilia;
PARTE workshop. Partitivity in European Languages Talk given at a conference Partitive Articles in French, Italian (and Northern Italian Dialects) 26.01.2019 Zurich, Switzerland Poletto Cecilia;
PARTE workshop. Partitivity in European Languages Talk given at a conference Features and contexts of partitive pronouns: a cross-linguistic comparison 26.01.2019 Zurich, Switzerland Ihsane Tabea;
Romanistik Colloquium, University of Frankfurt Individual talk Partitive articles in French, Italian and Northern Italian dialects 20.11.2018 Frankfurt a.M., Germany Poletto Cecilia;
Colloque de recherche en linguistique. Invited speaker Individual talk Pourquoi des 'articles partitifs' dans les langues romanes ? Approche morphologique comparative 26.10.2018 Univerity of Lille, France Stark Elisabeth;
Days of Swiss Linguistics 2018 Talk given at a conference Presenting DiFuPaRo: Distribution and Function of ‘Partitive articles’ in Romance: A microvariation analysis. 12.10.2018 Bern, Switzerland Stark Elisabeth; Ihsane Tabea;
Societas Linguistica Europaea (SLE 2018), Workshop Preverbal Indefinite Subjects Talk given at a conference Preverbal subjects with a partitive article: The case of Francoprovençal in the Aosta Valley 29.08.2018 University of Tallinn, Estonia Ihsane Tabea;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Partitivity Workshop at Going Romance 01.12.2021 Amsterdam, Netherlands
Workshop on Pseudo-partitivity 02.07.2021 Zurich / online, Switzerland
Online DiFuPaRo workshop 11.06.2020 online, Switzerland
Workshop Around Partitive Articles (Workshop of the DiFuPaRo Project) 05.11.2019 Frankfurt a.M., Germany
PARTE workshop. Partitivity in European Languages 26.01.2019 Zurich, Switzerland

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
198806 Disentangling Bare Nouns and Nominals Introduced by a Partitive Article 01.09.2020 Open Access Books

Abstract

The aim of the present project is to provide a detailed description of the spatial distribution of different types of so-called ‘partitive articles’ (PAs), i.e. elements like French du/des and Italian del/dei, in several Gallo- and Italo-Romance varieties, more precisely in Switzerland and Northern Italy, namely standard French/Italian, colloquial (Swiss) French, Francoprovençal (FrPr) and Northern Italian dialects (NID). Our overall research objective is to describe the place and function of PAs, typologically highly marked and yet quite neglected elements (besides some work done on Standard French and Italian), inside the respective Romance systems of nominal determination: what are their morphological properties, what do they encode, where are they found in the sentence, how do they interact with NP-internal (e.g. quantifiers) and -external (e.g. negation) functional elements? The answers to these overarching questions will broaden our understanding of nominal determination and quantification in Indo-European languages (more specifically Romance), particularly with respect to nowadays established typological classifications like the one in Chierchia 1998c (Romance languages as number-marking languages without classifiers) and the fundamental role and syntactic locus (cf. Heycock/Zamparelli 2005, Borer 2005, Ihsane 2008, Mathieu 2014) of the count-mass distinction in the internal structure of nominals and (communicative) conceptualization (cf. Champollion/Krifka 2016). In order to answer these questions, we will mainly exploit existing databases, first, in Switzerland (OFROM: for colloquial Swiss Frenchs: Corpus oral de français de Suisse romande, ALAVAL for Francoprovençal: Atlas linguistique audiovisuel du francoprovençal valaisan) and, second, in Italy (direction in Germany) for Northern Italy (ASIt: Atlante sintattico d´Italia), completed by some fieldwork in Switzerland and Northern Italy, to set up a common database giving insights for the first time systematically into the linguistics properties and geographical distribution of different types of PAs in the Romance varieties under investigation. We will also try to answer a fundamental question of typology, this time on the level of microvariation: Why do we find them where we do?, and to propose first formal analyses of the internal structure of nominals with PAs in Romance. We believe that this first detailed comparative investigation into the observable microvariation around ‘partitive articles’ in genetically closely related languages/varieties help us understand the precise function or array of functions of this element and will establish working tools (tagset, database) for subsequent research into more Romance varieties (Francoprovençal in the Aosta valley, Occitan in France, Central and Southern Italian dialects, cf. Cardinaletti/Giusti 2016). As this research project focuses on investigating non-standard and partially endangered varieties of Romance, its importance lies also in the unravelling and documentation of unknown features of Romance varieties used in informal contexts only, which are however highly relevant to understand issues of language contact in the explanation of the distribution of grammatical features in space (Bickel 2007).
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