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HORNET Holocene Climate Reconstruction for the Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropics

English title HORNET Holocene Climate Reconstruction for the Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropics
Applicant Davis Basil
Number 169598
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut des dynamiques de la surface terrestre Université de Lausanne
Institution of higher education University of Lausanne - LA
Main discipline Other disciplines of Earth Sciences
Start/End 01.02.2017 - 31.05.2021
Approved amount 571'707.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Other disciplines of Earth Sciences
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy

Keywords (6)

Pollen; Climate models; Paleoclimate; Atmospheric dynamics; Holocene; Climate

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Projet HORNET: Reconstitutions climatiques de l’Hémisphère Nord extratropical au cours de l’Holocène à partir de données polliniquesLes enregistrements des changements du climat de la Terre avant l’époque moderne nous aident à comprendre le système climatique global au delà de notre perspective historique étriquée. Ces enregistrements peuvent aussi être utilisés pour tester et évaluer la fiabilité des modèles climatiques sur lesquels nos prédictions des changements climatiques à venir sont basées. Il a été montré que les modèles actuels ont des difficultés à reproduire un grand nombre d’aspects des changements climatiques qui ont eu lieu au cours de l’Holocène (la dernière période interglaciaire qui couvre les 12000 dernières années).
Lay summary

Le principal objectif de ce projet consiste à améliorer notre compréhension des changements climatiques qui ont eu lieu au cours de l’Holocène en créant les toutes premières reconstitutions spatialement et saisonnièrement explicites du climat de l’Hémisphère Nord extratropical au cours des 12000 dernières années. Pour ce faire, nous utiliserons des enregistrements polliniques fossiles provenant de plus de 3000 lacs et tourbières répartis à travers notre zone d’étude, ce qui nous permettra de mettre en évidence comment le climat a changé via son impact sur la végétation. En reconstituant la configuration spatiale des anomalies hivernales et estivales des températures et des précipitations, et en les comparant avec celles dérivées des simulations mais aussi avec des configurations modernes de circulation atmosphérique, nous espérons déterminer le rôle relatif de la dynamique de l’atmosphère sur le climat au cours de l’Holocène. 

Ce projet va reconstituer les changements climatiques de l’Holocène avec une résolution spatiale et saisonnière inédite. Ces résultats vont nous aider à comprendre comment le climat a changé à l’échelle régionale, ce qui permettra par la suite d’améliorer la capacité des modèles à prédire les futurs changements climatiques à l’échelle régionale.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 01.02.2017

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Holocene global mean surface temperature, a multi-method reconstruction approach
Kaufman Darrell, McKay Nicholas, Routson Cody, Erb Michael, Dätwyler Christoph, Sommer Philipp S., Heiri Oliver, Davis Basil (2020), Holocene global mean surface temperature, a multi-method reconstruction approach, in Scientific Data, 7(1), 201-201.
A global database of Holocene paleotemperature records
Kaufman Darrell, McKay Nicholas, Routson Cody, Erb Michael, Davis Basil, Heiri Oliver, Jaccard Samuel, Tierney Jessica, Dätwyler Christoph, Axford Yarrow, Brussel Thomas, Cartapanis Olivier, Chase Brian, Dawson Andria, de Vernal Anne, Engels Stefan, Jonkers Lukas, Marsicek Jeremiah, Moffa-Sánchez Paola, Morrill Carrie, Orsi Anais, Rehfeld Kira, Saunders Krystyna, Sommer Philipp S., et al. (2020), A global database of Holocene paleotemperature records, in Scientific Data, 7(1), 115-115.
Pollen-based climate reconstruction techniques for late Quaternary studies
Chevalier Manuel, Davis Basil A.S., Heiri Oliver, Seppä Heikki, Chase Brian M., Gajewski Konrad, Lacourse Terri, Telford Richard J., Finsinger Walter, Guiot Joël, Kühl Norbert, Maezumi S. Yoshi, Tipton John R., Carter Vachel A., Brussel Thomas, Phelps Leanne N., Dawson Andria, Zanon Marco, Vallé Francesca, Nolan Connor, Mauri Achille, de Vernal Anne, Izumi Kenji, Holmström Lasse, et al. (2020), Pollen-based climate reconstruction techniques for late Quaternary studies, in Earth-Science Reviews, 210, 103384-103384.
The Eurasian Modern Pollen Database (EMPD), Version 2
DavisBasil (2020), The Eurasian Modern Pollen Database (EMPD), Version 2, in Earth System Science Data, 12, 2423-2445.
How hot was the Holocene?
DavisBasil (2019), How hot was the Holocene?, 27(2), Past Global Changes, Bern, Switzerland 27(2).
straditize: Digitizing stratigraphic diagrams
Sommer Philipp, Rech Dilan, Chevalier Manuel, Davis Basil (2019), straditize: Digitizing stratigraphic diagrams, in Journal of Open Source Software, 4(34), 1216-1216.
The Pollen-Climate Methods Intercomparison Project (PC-MIP)
Davis Basil (2017), The Pollen-Climate Methods Intercomparison Project (PC-MIP), in Past Global Changes Magazine, 25(3), 161-161.

Datasets

Eurasian Modern Pollen Database (EMPD) version 2

Author Davis, Basil
Publication date 24.01.2019
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.1594/PANGAEA.909130
Repository PANGAEA
Abstract
The Eurasian Modern Pollen Database (EMPD) contains modern pollen data (raw counts) for the entire Eurasian continent. Derived from the European Modern Pollen Database, the dataset contains many more samples West of the Ural Mountains. We propose this dataset in three different format: 1/ an Excel spreadsheet, 2/ a PostgreSQL dump and 3/ a SQLite3 portable database format. All three datasets are strictly equivalent. For download see "Original Version".

Temperature 12k Database

Author Kaufman, Darrell
Publication date 24.01.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.25921/4ry2-g808
Repository NOAA Paleoclimatology Data
Abstract
A comprehensive database of paleoclimate records is needed to place recent warming into the longer-term context of natural climate variability. We present a global compilation of quality-controlled, published, temperature-sensitive proxy records extending back 12,000 years through the Holocene. Data were compiled from 679 sites where time series cover at least 4000 years, are resolved at sub-millennial scale (median spacing of 400 years or finer) and have at least one age control point every 3000 years, with cut-off values slackened in data-sparse regions. The data derive from lake sediment (51%), marine sediment (31%), peat (11%), glacier ice (3%), and other natural archives. The database contains 1319 records, including 157 from the Southern Hemisphere. The multi-proxy database comprises paleotemperature time series based on ecological assemblages, as well as biophysical and geochemical indicators that reflect mean annual or seasonal temperatures, as encoded in the database. This database can be used to reconstruct the spatiotemporal evolution of Holocene temperature at global to regional scales, and is publicly available in Linked Paleo Data (LiPD) format.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dr Chris Brierley, School of Geography, University College London Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Christoph Raible, University of Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Simon Brewer, University of Utah United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof Darrell Kaufman, School of Earth and Sustainability, North Arizona University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr Kengi Izumi, LMD, Paris France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Steve Juggins, Newcastle University Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Paul Valdes, University of Bristol Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
American Geophysical Union (AGU) Meeting Talk given at a conference The HORNET Project; A Holocene pollen-based gridded climate reconstruction for the Northern Hemisphere Extra-Tropics 08.12.2019 San Francisco, United States of America Davis Basil;
INQUA Conference Talk given at a conference The HORNET project: applying 'big data' to reconstruct the climate of the Northern Hemisphere during the Holocene 25.07.2019 Dublin, Ireland Sommer Philipp; Chevalier Manuel; Davis Basil;
European Geophysical Union (EGU) Talk given at a conference The HORNET project: A gridded pollen-based Holocene climate record for the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics 07.04.2019 Vienna, Austria Chevalier Manuel; Davis Basil; Sommer Philipp;
European Geophysical Union (EGU) Talk given at a conference Reconstruction of winter atmospheric teleconnections in the North Atlantic area during the Holocene using a gridded pollen-based temperature record 09.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Davis Basil; Chevalier Manuel; Sommer Philipp;
PALMOD Meeting Talk given at a conference Reconstructing past changes in atmospheric circulation during the Holocene using a pollen-based gridded climate reconstruction 07.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Davis Basil; Chevalier Manuel; Sommer Philipp;
PC-MIP Pollen-Climate Model Inter-comparison Project Workshop Talk given at a conference The first PC-MIP workshop, Switzerland 2017 21.02.2018 Calgary, Canada, Canada Chevalier Manuel; Davis Basil;
Free University of Berlin, Institute of Meteorology, Seminar Series Individual talk The Holocene temperature conundrum, real or imagined? 25.10.2017 Institute of Meteorology - FU Berlin, Germany Davis Basil;
1st PMIP4 conference, Stockholm Talk given at a conference The HORNET Project, Holocene pollen-based climate reconstruction for the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics 25.09.2017 Stockholm. Sweden, Sweden Davis Basil; Chevalier Manuel; Sommer Philipp;
Invited Talk, Max Planck for Meteorology, Hamburg Individual talk The Holocene temperature conundrum, real or imagined? 21.06.2017 Max Planck for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany Davis Basil;
PAGES 5th Open Science Meeting, Zaragoza Individual talk The lost season: Winter temperature change during the Holocene 09.05.2017 Zaragoza, Spain, Spain Davis Basil; Sommer Philipp; Chevalier Manuel; Kaplan Jed Oliver;
Lessons learnt from paleoscience on a possible 1.5 – 2°C warmer world in the future Talk given at a conference The Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM); epilogue to the Pleistocene, or analogue for the Anthropocene? 05.04.2017 University of Bern, Switzerland Davis Basil;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
HORNET project collaborators meeting 08.05.2021 University of Bristol & University College London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland
HORNET project collaborators meeting 16.10.2019 UNiversity of Lausanne, Switzerland
Climate12k workshop 10.06.2019 Les Rasses, Switzerland
Eurasian Modern Pollen Database (EMPD) workshop 08.10.2018 La Tzoumaz, Switzerland
HORNET project collaborators meeting 20.08.2018 University of Bristol, Great Britain and Northern Ireland
HORNET project collaborators meeting 03.07.2018 University of Lausanne, Switzerland
HORNET project collaborators meeting 07.06.2018 University College London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland
HORNET project collaborators meeting 20.09.2017 Newcastle University, Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Pollen-Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (PCMIP) workshop 12.06.2017 Caux, Switzerland

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
137342 A European Pollen Surface Sample Database 01.09.2011 International Exploratory Workshops
173407 Pollen-Climate Methods Inter-comparison Project (PC-MIP) Workshop 01.06.2017 International Exploratory Workshops

Abstract

Data-model comparisons of Holocene climate provide an ideal basis for evaluating climate model performance outside of modern climate variability, being recent enough that boundary conditions and forcings are well known, while well-dated palaeoclimate archives are abundant enough that past climate can be comprehensively reconstructed. To date, efforts to reconstruct the spatial patterns of Holocene climate change have been mainly focused on the mid-Holocene, but significant problems have already been identified in data-model comparisons. For instance, Hargreaves et al. (2013) reported for the very latest CMIP5 models that “..our results for the mid-Holocene are substantially negative, with the models failing to reproduce the observed changes with any degree of skill”. The reasons for these data-model discrepancies are not entirely clear, but the applicants have shown that the regional patterns of climate anomalies that are poorly represented in climate models may be explained by seasonal changes in atmospheric dynamics, a model weakness also found in simulations of modern climate (Mauri et al., 2014). The HORNET project will investigate these data-model discrepancies, including the potential role of atmospheric dynamics, by providing the first quantitative gridded climate reconstruction for the entire Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical landmass for the last 12,000 years based on pollen data. This will be achieved by leveraging fossil pollen data from over 3000 sites from North America, Europe and Asia, most of which are already available from existing public pollen databases. The reconstruction will use a common pollen-climate methodology to provide consistent and comprehensive estimates of uncertainties, and will be independently evaluated against existing reconstructions based on other proxies, as well as other pollen-climate techniques. The results will be fully documented and both managed and made public using a new map-based visualization tool developed within the project. This tool will allow both primary pollen and climate data from the HORNET project to be viewed on a site-by-site basis, whilst also providing a more general resource for the study of Holocene climate by also showing other climate reconstructions from other studies. A key scientific objective of the HORNET project will be to use data to identify the relative contribution of the summer and winter seasons to Northern Hemisphere interglacial warming, and particularly the relative role of an orbitally driven increase in insolation in summer, and a dynamically driven increase in the pole-ward heat flux in winter. The role of atmospheric dynamics will be investigated by comparison with comparable patterns of regional climate anomalies generated by modern analogue circulation patterns. The project will make available a high quality gridded and seasonally resolved reconstruction of Northern Hemisphere climate change during the Holocene that will provide a state-of-the-art baseline for climate model evaluation, and particularly to evaluate the ability of models to reproduce regional climate change, which remains a key uncertainty in simulations of future climate change (Stocker et al., 2013).The HORNET project will promote collaboration and community participation in the project through 3 workshops on 1) pollen-climate reconstruction methods, 2) quantitative records of Holocene climate change, and 3) Holocene data-model comparisons and understanding data-model discrepancies.
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