co-phylogenetics; phylogeography; host-parasite associations; parasite speciation; diversity patterns; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Platyhelminths; host-parasite interactions; interspecific interactions; Salmonidae
Blasco-Costa Isabel, Hayward Alexander, Poulin Robert, Balbuena Juan A. (2021), Next-generation cophylogeny: unravelling eco-evolutionary processes, in Trends in Ecology & Evolution
, 36(10), 907-918.
Rochat Eloïse C., Brodersen Jakob, Blasco-Costa Isabel (2021), Conspecific migration and environmental setting determine parasite infracommunities of non-migratory individual fish, in Parasitology
, 148(9), 1057-1066.
Padrós F., Knudsen R., Blasco-Costa I. (2018), Histopathological characterisation of retinal lesions associated to Diplostomum species (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) infection in polymorphic Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, in International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife
, 7(1), 68-74.
R code for Cophylospace
|Persistent Identifier (PID)
The file contained the R code used to apply the Cophylospace framework. Also here: https://ligophorus.github.io/CophylospaceLigoExample/cophylospaceExample.html
Adaptive species radiations (i.e. the diversification of species into sister-species flocks by adaptation to different ecological environments in short evolutionary time) have ecosystem effects through altering trophic interactions and “food-web” dynamics. Yet little is known about how radiations affect other interspecific interactions, such as host-parasite associations. Analogous to how a diverse habitat can support a diverse community of free-living species and lead to species radiations, a species-rich or genetically divergent pool of hosts may provide variable but resource-rich habitats that may promote parasite species radiations. Pioneering studies suggest that host diversity promotes parasite diversification into separate genetic species as a consequence of rapid host speciation. However, several crucial questions remain unanswered. First, how general is this process? Do other parasite taxa also diversify as a consequence of rapid host speciation? Which parasite traits predispose them to diversify? What processes generating variability will underpin novel adaptations among distinct parasite population leading to speciation? These questions are key to our understanding of the speciation process in parasites and the evolution towards host specificity. Typically a single host is capable of supporting a diverse community of parasites, and thus a sister-species complex of free-living organisms may act as an arena for the origin of a burst of closely related (sister-species complexes of) parasite species. The Swiss and Scandinavian whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus complex) represent a major example of animal radiations with multiple species and divergent populations, which represent different stages of the speciation continuum. This model of a fish radiation as a host allows us to search for parallel patterns of diversification in parasite species composing the communities infecting this host. Here we will examine the genetic make-up of several parasite species with contrasting life-history strategies across whitefish sister-species with a range of genetic and ecological differentiation, in order to disentangle host and parasite ecological traits driving parasite differentiation and favouring host specificity. We will use a combination of field data, population genomic approaches [single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] and co-phylogenetic analyses, with the ultimate aim of understanding the role of evolutionary and ecological processes at different geographical scales by which host diversity may trigger parasite diversification and promote host specificity. 1. We will assess whether parasite diversity follows the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis by correlating parasite diversity indexes with the degree of genetic and ecological differentiation between host species within and across lakes. 2. We will quantify genetic differentiation of parasite populations across a diversity of host ecotypes over a large geographical scale. 3. We will examine the contribution of parasite and host ecological traits to the congruence of host and parasite phylogeographic structures. Unravelling determinants of diversification and genetic structure in parasites can greatly benefit from a comparative approach in which co-occurring species in populations of recently speciated hosts are investigated simultaneously. The novelty herein lies in both its comparative and trans-disciplinary approaches linking ecological and molecular epidemiology concepts, with population genomics and evolution. Integration of key findings at the multiple scales of the study will allow proposing a general framework for the interplay of ecological and evolutionary processes promoting parasite diversification in an interspecies interaction context.