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Solar and Extrasolar Giant Planets: Formation, Evolution, and Internal Structure

Applicant Helled Ravit
Number 169054
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology University of Zurich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Start/End 01.10.2016 - 30.09.2019
Approved amount 620'000.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Geophysics

Keywords (4)

planet formation; exoplanets; giant planets; solar system

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Ravit Helled
Lay summary

Die Erforschung neuer Welten ist seit jeher eine Quelle wissenschaftlichen Inspiration. Heute wissen wir, dass Planeten sehr häufige astronomische Objekte sind, die in vielfältiger Form vorkommen. Über die reine Suche nach neuen Planeten hinaus sind die Hauptziele mittlerweile das Entschlüsseln der Eigenschaften und Charakteristika der neuen Objekte. Riesenplaneten nehmen einen besonderen Stellenwert ein, da sie am besten beobachtet werden können und darüber hinaus durch ihre Größe besonderen Einfluss auf die Entwicklung von Planetensystemen ausüben.

Wir befinden uns in einem goldenen Zeitalter der Planetologie mit revolutionären Beobachtungen von extrasolaren Planeten und der beeindruckenden Erkundung unseres Sonnensystems. Gegenwärtig laufen die Juno & Cassini Missionen zur Vermessung der Riesenplaneten im Sonnensystem und parallel dazu die geplanten Projekte TESS und PLATO zur Entdeckung und Charakterisierung von Planeten um andere Sterne. Diese Forschungsmissionen liefern Messdaten bereits jetzt und über die nächsten Jahrzehnte. Die neuen Daten haben ein sehr grosses Potential, unser Wissen über Planetensysteme zu revolutionieren, wenn dabei als Grundvoraussetzung sich das theoretische Verständnis vergleichbar entwickelt.

 Das Ziel dieses Forschungsprojektes ist es, ein neues, kohärentes Verständnis von Riesenplaneten zu entwickeln. Dabei steht die theoretische Verknüpfung der drei Aspekte der Entstehung, Entwicklung und der internen Struktur von Planeten im Vordergrund. Die neue Methodik wird durch vielschichtiges Einbeziehen von Daten zu solaren und extrasolaren Planeten, der Synthese von Theorie und Beobachtung sowie der Verknüpfung der gängigsten Modelle zur Entstehung von Riesenplaneten entwickelt. Diese neue, kohärente Betrachtungsweise wird nicht nur notwendig sein, um die Klasse der Riesenplaneten zu verstehen, sondern darüber hinaus ein wichtiger Baustein zur Interpretation neuester Beobachtungen im und außerhalb unseres Sonnensystems sein.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 23.09.2016

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Constraining the initial planetary population in the gravitational instability model
Humphries J, Vazan A, Bonavita M, Helled R, Nayakshin S (2019), Constraining the initial planetary population in the gravitational instability model, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 488(4), 4873-4889.
The formation of Jupiter’s diluted core by a giant impact
Liu Shang-Fei, Hori Yasunori, Müller Simon, Zheng Xiaochen, Helled Ravit, Lin Doug, Isella Andrea (2019), The formation of Jupiter’s diluted core by a giant impact, in Nature, 572(7769), 355-357.
Effect of non-adiabatic thermal profiles on the inferred compositions of Uranus and Neptune
Podolak Morris, Helled Ravit, Schubert Gerald (2019), Effect of non-adiabatic thermal profiles on the inferred compositions of Uranus and Neptune, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 487(2), 2653-2664.
The Deposition of Heavy Elements in Giant Protoplanetary Atmospheres: The Importance of Planetesimal–Envelope Interactions
Valletta Claudio, Helled Ravit (2019), The Deposition of Heavy Elements in Giant Protoplanetary Atmospheres: The Importance of Planetesimal–Envelope Interactions, in The Astrophysical Journal, 871(1), 127-127.
The formation of Jupiter by hybrid pebble–planetesimal accretion
Alibert Yann, Venturini Julia, Helled Ravit, Ataiee Sareh, Burn Remo, Senecal Luc, Benz Willy, Mayer Lucio, Mordasini Christoph, Quanz Sascha P., Schönbächler Maria (2018), The formation of Jupiter by hybrid pebble–planetesimal accretion, in Nature Astronomy, 2(11), 873-877.
Threshold Radii of Volatile-rich Planets
Lozovsky M., Helled R., Dorn C., Venturini J. (2018), Threshold Radii of Volatile-rich Planets, in The Astrophysical Journal, 866(1), 49-49.
Forming Mercury by Giant Impacts
Chau Alice, Reinhardt Christian, Helled Ravit, Stadel Joachim (2018), Forming Mercury by Giant Impacts, in The Astrophysical Journal, 865(1), 35-35.
The primordial entropy of Jupiter
Cumming Andrew, Helled Ravit, Venturini Julia (2018), The primordial entropy of Jupiter, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 477(4), 4817-4823.
Jupiter’s evolution with primordial composition gradients
Vazan Allona, Helled Ravit, Guillot Tristan (2018), Jupiter’s evolution with primordial composition gradients, in Astronomy & Astrophysics, 610, L14-L14.
On the Diversity in Mass and Orbital Radius of Giant Planets Formed via Disk Instability
Müller Simon, Helled Ravit, Mayer Lucio (2018), On the Diversity in Mass and Orbital Radius of Giant Planets Formed via Disk Instability, in The Astrophysical Journal, 854(2), 112-112.
Phase Diagram of Hydrogen and a Hydrogen-Helium Mixture at Planetary Conditions by Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations
Mazzola Guglielmo, Helled Ravit, Sorella Sandro (2018), Phase Diagram of Hydrogen and a Hydrogen-Helium Mixture at Planetary Conditions by Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations, in Physical Review Letters, 120(2), 025701-025701.
The Formation of Mini-Neptunes
Venturini Julia, Helled Ravit (2017), The Formation of Mini-Neptunes, in The Astrophysical Journal, 848(2), 95-95.
The Fuzziness of Giant Planets' Cores
Ravit Helled1 and David Stevenson (2017), The Fuzziness of Giant Planets' Cores, in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 840, 1.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
University of Zurich, Institute for Computational Sciences Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication
University of California, Santa Cruz United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting, Talk given at a conference Bifurcation in the history of Uranus and Neptune: the role of giant impacts 16.09.2019 Geneva, Switzerland Chau Alice;
EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2019 Poster Giant Planet Formation and Evolution: A Self-consistent Treatment of the Heavy Elements 16.09.2019 Geneva, Switzerland Valletta Claudio;
EPSC-DPS 2019 Talk given at a conference On the evolution and internal structure of giant planets 16.09.2019 Geneva, Switzerland Müller Simon;
International Planetary Probe Workshop, Short Course: Ice Giants Individual talk The Formation and Evolution of Uranus and Neptune 07.07.2019 Oxford , Great Britain and Northern Ireland Helled Ravit;
From Start to Planets II Talk given at a conference The evolution of giant planets with composition gradients 17.06.2019 Gothenburg, Sweden Müller Simon;
Planet Formation Workshop Talk given at a conference Giant planet formation & evolution with a self-consistent treatment of the heavy elements 20.05.2019 New York, United States of America Valletta Claudio;
Physics Colloquium, University of Tubingen Individual talk Understanding Giant Planets 13.04.2019 Tubingen , Germany Helled Ravit;
Planet Formation and Evolution Workshop Talk given at a conference Understanding giant planets 27.02.2019 Rostock, Germany Helled Ravit;
Ice Giants: Formation, Internal Structure, and the Link to Exoplanets Talk given at a conference Giant planet evolution with composition gradients 05.02.2019 Bern, Switzerland Müller Simon;
Physics colloquium, University of Bonn Individual talk Giant Planets 23.11.2018 Bonn, Germany Helled Ravit;
7th Joint Workshop on High Pressure, Planetary and Plasma Physics Talk given at a conference The interior of Jupiter 09.10.2018 Berlin, Germany Helled Ravit;
EPSC 2018 Talk given at a conference Threshold Radii for Water Worlds and Neptune-like Planets 17.09.2018 Berlin, Germany Lozovsky Michael;
NCCR PlanetS workshop on Exoplanet Demographics: Observations Confront Planet Formation Theory Talk given at a conference The diversity in mass and orbital radius of giant planets formed via disk instability 09.07.2018 Bern, Switzerland Müller Simon;
Gravitational Instability: Unsolved problems in forming planets, brown dwarfs and stellar companions Talk given at a conference The diversity in mass and orbital radius of giant planets formed via disk instability 27.06.2018 Leicester, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Müller Simon;
EGU General Assembly Talk given at a conference Forming Mercury by giant impacts 09.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Chau Alice;
PlanetS General Assembly Poster Forming Mercury by giant impacts 29.01.2018 Grindelwald, Switzerland Chau Alice;
Impacts in Planetary Systems Talk given at a conference Forming Mercury by giant impacts 15.05.2017 Lund, Sweden Chau Alice;
NCCR PlanetS workshop on exoplanet densitie Talk given at a conference Characterization of high-density exoplanets 03.05.2017 Bern, Switzerland Chau Alice;
PlanetS General Assembly Poster Mercury and high-Density exoplanets 23.01.2017 Grindelwald, Switzerland Chau Alice;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: radio, television Erste privatfinanzierte Sonde auf dem Weg zum Mond German-speaking Switzerland 2019
Talks/events/exhibitions Grace and Gravity - ENGADIN ART TALKS German-speaking Switzerland 2019
Talks/events/exhibitions Zurich Art Weekend German-speaking Switzerland 2019

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
188460 Planetary Modeling: from origin to current-state structure 01.10.2019 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

The curiosity about other worlds has always been a great source of inspiration. Today, we know that planets are common astronomical objects, and not only do we have the opportunity to investigate the planets in our own Solar System, but also to characterize planets around other stars. The aim of this proposal is to develop a new generation of giant planet models. Investigating giant planets is particularly timely now. At present, there are the ongoing Juno and Cassini space missions dedicated to giant planet exploration inside the Solar System, as well as the planned CHEOPS, TESS and PLATO 2.0 missions and ground- based facilities to detect and characterize exoplanets. The planned and operational space missions have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of planetary systems, but this can only be done with a compatible advance in theory. The overarching objective of this proposal is to develop a unified theoretical framework for giant planets.This project is unique for several reasons: it combines research of solar and extrasolar planets, synthesizes theory and observations, includes the two models for giant planet formation, and couples theories of planetary origin, evolution, and internal structure in one theoretical framework. This research will provide a crucial element that is required for understanding giant planets as a class of planetary objects as well as for interpreting current and upcoming solar and extrasolar data.
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