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Sustainable Commons Adaptations to Landscape Ecosystems in Switzerland (SCALES): Institutional Change, Constitutional Innovations and Public Policies in Swiss Resource Management

English title Sustainable Commons Adaptations to Landscape Ecosystems in Switzerland (SCALES): Institutional Change, Constitutional Innovations and Public Policies in Swiss Resource Management
Applicant Haller Tobias
Number 166334
Funding scheme Interdisciplinary projects
Research institution Institut für Sozialanthropologie Philosophisch-historische Fakultät Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Ethnology
Start/End 01.01.2017 - 30.09.2020
Approved amount 781'312.00
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Keywords (8)

anthropology; sustainability; robustness; history; commons; Switzerland; economics; politology

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Im Project SCALES (Sustainable Commons Adaptations to Landscape Ecosystems in Switzerland) sollen Kontinuität und Wandel im Management von Allmend-Ressourcen wie Weiden und Wälder in der Schweiz untersucht werden, die institutionell in diversen Formen des kollektiven Eigentums verwaltet und genutzt werden (durch Bürgergemeinden und Korporationen). Das Interesse an einem solchen Projekt ist international sehr gross, da sich die Nobelpreisträgerin Elinor Ostrom in ihrer Arbeit auf Schweizer Beispiele stütze.
Lay summary

Das Projekt setzt zeitlich im 19. Jahrhundert ein und erforscht gouvernanzspezifische Veränderungen bis heute. SCALES bezieht sich auf die Arbeit des US-Sozialanthropologen Robert Netting über die kommunale Ressourcenverwaltung in der Schweiz am Beispiel Törbel (Wallis), die von der Nobelpreisträgerin Elinor Ostrom aufgegriffen und neben anderen Fällen als Beweis aufgeführt wurde, dass Menschen nachhaltige und dauerhaft funktionierende Allmende-Institutionen entwickeln können. Die letzten 200 Jahre und insbesondere die letzten 40 Jahre haben jedoch zu grossen exogenen strukturellen Veränderungen in der Landwirtschaft geführt, die im politischen, ökonomischen und institutionellen/rechtlichen Wandel ihre Wurzeln haben. Trotzdem hat die Schweiz mit ihrem dezentralen politischen System viel dazu beigetragen, dass sich von unten und in partizipativer Form neue vielfältige und lokal angepasste Lösungen des Kollektivressourcenproblems entwickelt konnten.

Diese Heterogenität soll durch interdisziplinäre Post-Doc-Forschungen aus Sozialanthropologie/Humangeographie, Geschichte, politische Wissenschaften und Agrar-Ökonomie interdisziplinär untersucht werden. Zuerst soll eine geringe Anzahl von Fallbeispielen einen vertieften Einblick in Robustheit, Wandel und Innovation von Institutionen des Kollektivressourcenmanagements bieten. Ein besonderer Fokus richtet sich auf die lokale  Sichtweise und Erklärung dieser Veränderungen. Zudem wird untersucht, wie diese Veränderungen im Kollektivressourcenmanagement in kantonale und staatliche Strukturen eingebunden sind und inwiefern sie eine Anpassung an die Dynamik der ökonomischen und politischen Konstellationen bedeuten. Aufgrund dieser Basis werden weitere Fallbeispiele mit qualitativen und quantitativen Methoden analysiert.

 

 

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 30.05.2016

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Vermittlung, Einbau, Komplementarität – Formen des staatlichen Zugriffs auf kollektive Weiden und Wälder in der Schweiz im späten 19. Jahrhundert
ViallonFrancois-Xavier (2020), Vermittlung, Einbau, Komplementarität – Formen des staatlichen Zugriffs auf kollektive Weiden und Wälder in der Schweiz im späten 19. Jahrhundert, in Lorenzetti Luigi, Stuber Martin, Head-König Anne-Lise, Wunderli Rahel (ed.), Chronos, Zürich, 125-149.
A fragile balance?: The case of pasture and forest management in Olivone (Canton Ticino)
BertogliatiMark, A fragile balance?: The case of pasture and forest management in Olivone (Canton Ticino), in Haller Tobias (ed.), Routledge, London, 234.
Balancing the Commons in Switzerland - Institutional Transformations and Sustainable Innovations.
HallerTobias, LiechtiKarina, StuberMartin, ViallonFrancois-Xavier, WunderliRahel, Balancing the Commons in Switzerland - Institutional Transformations and Sustainable Innovations., Routledge, London.
Commons and peasant studies: Insights from social anthropology, human geography and agrarian economics
HallerTobias, LiechtiKarina, MannStefan, Commons and peasant studies: Insights from social anthropology, human geography and agrarian economics, in Haller Tobias (ed.), Routledge, London, 45.
How do the commons meet the state? A political science perspective
ViallonFrancois-Xavier, NahrathStéphane, How do the commons meet the state? A political science perspective, in Haller Tobias (ed.), Routledge, London, 35.
Ostrom’s legacy of robustness and the ‘Swiss commons lab’: Introductory reflections on change and power in commons studies
HallerTobias, GerberJean-David, LiechtiKarina, NahrathStéphane, RohrChristian, StuberMartin, ViallonFrancois-Xavier, WunderliRahel, Ostrom’s legacy of robustness and the ‘Swiss commons lab’: Introductory reflections on change and power in commons studies, in Haller Tobias (ed.), Routledge, London, 1-15.
Scopes and challenges of a huge corporation over time: The case of the Korporation Uri (Canton Uri)
WunderliRahel, Scopes and challenges of a huge corporation over time: The case of the Korporation Uri (Canton Uri), Routledge, London.
Transformation and diversity: Synthesis of the case studies
HallerTobias, LiechtiKarina, StuberMartin, ViallonFrancois-Xavier, WunderliRahel, Transformation and diversity: Synthesis of the case studies, in Haller Tobias (ed.), Routledge , London, 277.
Transformation, diversification, partnerships: The case of the Sarnen commoners’ organisations (Canton Obwalden)
LiechtiKarina, Transformation, diversification, partnerships: The case of the Sarnen commoners’ organisations (Canton Obwalden), in Haller Tobias (ed.), Routledge, London, 147.
Transformations of common pastures and woodlands in Switzerland: A historical perspective
StuberWunderli, Transformations of common pastures and woodlands in Switzerland: A historical perspective, in Haller Tobias (ed.), Routledge, London, 17.
Urban commons in Alpine areas: The case of the Bürgergemeinde Chur (Canton Grisons
StuberMartin, Urban commons in Alpine areas: The case of the Bürgergemeinde Chur (Canton Grisons, in Haller Tobias (ed.), Routledge, London, 105.
Weak commons management, strong identity: The case of Val d’Anniviers (Canton Valais)
ViallonFrancois-Xavier, Weak commons management, strong identity: The case of Val d’Anniviers (Canton Valais), in Haller Tobias (ed.), Routledge, London, 189.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
“Institute of Agricultural and Forestry Economics Austria (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
International Association for the Study of the Commons United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
HEKS / EPER Land Forum 2020: Strengthening Governance and Land Tenure Rights as a Response to Climate Change, Talk given at a conference Future of the commons in Switzerland - the potential of commoners‘ organizations in transformation processes 28.10.2020 online, Switzerland Liechti Karina;
Historical forms of sustainability – models for the future? Talk given at a conference Negotiating the implementation of new national policies – institutional change and resilience by the example of the Sarnen corporations. 22.11.2019 Bern, Switzerland Liechti Karina;
Historical Forms of Sustainability – Models for the Future? Collective Forests and Pastures since 1700 in a European Perspective Talk given at a conference The citizen assembly as a part of the commons’ political culture – the example of the «Korporationsgemeinde» in Altdorf, Switzerland, 22.11.2019 Bern, Switzerland Wunderli Götschi Rahel;
Territoires solidaires en commun: controverses à l'horizon du translocalisme. Talk given at a conference Les institutions de gestion des ressources communautaires en Suisse: entre fragilité et transformation 15.07.2019 Pontigny-Cerisy, France Viallon François-Xavier;
IASC Biennal Conference Lima Talk given at a conference Institutional Change in the Management of Swiss Commons (Pastures and Forests): The SCALES-Projekt. 04.07.2019 Lima, Peru Haller Tobias;
Ersten Schweizerischen Landschaftskongress Talk given at a conference Alpweiden: Regulierter Raum zwischen lokalen und nationalen Interessen. 23.08.2018 Luzern, Switzerland Wunderli Götschi Rahel;
Kollektive Weiden und Wälder – Ökonomie, Partizipation, Nachhaltigkeit Talk given at a conference Installierung des staatlichen Zugriffs auf kollektive Weiden und Wälder in der Schweiz. 05.06.2018 Altdorf, Switzerland Viallon François-Xavier; Stuber Martin; Liechti Karina; Wunderli Götschi Rahel;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Workshop IASC: Historical Forms of Sustainability 05.11.2019 Bern, Switzerland

Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Burgertreffen Bannwil Talk 01.09.2019 Bannwil, Switzerland Haller Tobias;
Treffen KantonsvertreterInnen Kanton Obwalden Talk 17.12.2017 Sarnen, Switzerland Liechti Karina; Jutzi Deborah Nathalie;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Regulierung von kollektiven Ressourcen im Wandel International 2018

Abstract

SCALES deals with the continuities and ruptures of common-pool resource (CPR) management (pastures and forests) based on common property institutions in Switzerland, taking as point of reference international research on Swiss commons (Netting 1976) and its use by Elinor Ostrom’s work on robust institutions for the commons (Ostrom 1990). While Swiss commons are labeled as reasons for the sustainable maintenance of its cultural landscape ecosystems, the last two centuries show that local resource governance has been challenged by external political, economic and institutional changes, such as state building and globalization processes. Some of these adapted to changing institutional frameworks and play a major role in CPR use and management. The diversity among currently active common property institutions in Switzerland is noticeably high and gives rise to international interests in the Swiss Way of governing CPRs over different SCALES. SCALES includes the disciplines history, social anthropology/human geography, agricultural economics and political science in order to carry out depth analysis of six Swiss case studies by the historians of the project and the project will move to in-depth social anthropological/human geography field studies analyzing the emic perception of local actors in order to understand the robustness of institutions as well as adaptation and innovations in contemporary times. These perceptions constitute a basic input for broader agro-economic studies, taking into account both economic and non-economic adaptation and incorporates a political science perspective, looking at the embedment of common property institutions in the state and the cantons, featuring in- or exclusion and rules of subsidiary decentralization. This comprehensive inter- and trans-disciplinary approach guarantees a holistic understanding of the potential (i.e. a laboratory for the commons) asking: A) What kind of links between public administration, communal ownership embedded in history and power relations and exposed to economic pressure, are responsible for sustainable commons adaptations and innovations to landscape ecosystems; B) What factors contribute to conflict constellations, loss of local bargaining power and decline of common property institutions and C) Which intermediary variables, such as conflicts, confrontation or wider cooperation with public administration and sectors of the economy, have an impact on the robustness and innovations of commons institutions.
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