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Cooperative Production of Low-Cost Housing - Socio-Technological Innovation for the Provision of Housing for Low-Income Populations

English title Cooperative Production of Low-Cost Housing - Socio-Technological Innovation for the Provision of Housing for Low-Income Populations
Applicant Angélil Marc
Number 164189
Funding scheme Brazil
Research institution Departement Architektur ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Architecture and Social urban science
Start/End 01.01.2016 - 31.12.2018
Approved amount 239'980.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Architecture and Social urban science
Sociology

Keywords (10)

Technological Innovation; Participation; Millenium Goal; Low-Cost Construction; Housing Cooperatives; Urbanization; Cooperative Development; Equity; Social Inclusion; Social Housing

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Das Forschungsprojekt 'Cooperative Production of Low-Cost Housing' untersucht Modelle zur Produktion von Wohnraum basierend auf einer kooperativen Entwicklung im Rahmen der Planung und der Umsetzung von sozialem Wohnungsbau. Anhand von Fallstudien aus dem brasilianischen Kontext und der Schweiz werden die Konstellationen und Protokolle ermittelt, die zu sozial verträglichen und ökologisch nachhaltigen Wohnformen führen. Dabei werden die Zusammenhänge zwischen sozialen Bewegungen (bottom-up), technischer Expertise und der Regierungsebene (top-down) analysiert und einer kritischen Betrachtung unterworfen. Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchungen bildet eine vergleichende Untersuchung zwischen dem brasilianischen Regierungsprogramm für sozialen Wohnungsbau (Minha Casa, Minha Vida) und aktuellen Beispielen genossenschaftlicher Wohnmodelle in der Schweiz.
Lay summary

Inhalt und Ziel des Forschungsprojekts
Das übergeordnete Ziel des Projekts liegt in der Erforschung von Kenntnissen zur Kapazitätenbildung (capacity building) im Bereich der Entwicklung von sozialem Wohnungsbaus unter Anwendung von partizipativen Modellen. Neben der Verbesserung der Zusammenarbeit zwischen unterschiedlichen Akteuren aus den sozialen Bewegungen, der technischen Expertise und der Regierungsebene werden dabei auch innovative Bautechnologien erforscht, die eine Beteiligung der Bewohner am Bauprozess ermöglichen. Ein weiteres Ziel besteht in der Ermittlung von gesetzlichen Vorgaben, die zur Förderung eines kooperativen sozialen Wohnungsbaus führen.

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext des Forschungsprojekts
Das Forschungsprojekt stellt einen Beitrag zur Umsetzung der UN Milleniumsziele (UN Millenium Development Goals) dar, der dazu dienen soll das Wohnumfeld einkommensschwacher Bevölkerungsschichten zu verbessern und damit eine resiliente und nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung zu unterstützen. Damit bezieht sich die Forschung auf das weitreichende Feld anstehender städtischer Transformationsprozesse, die eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen Bewohnern, Experten und öffentlichen Entscheidungsträgern erfordern.

In der Verbindung von interdisziplinärer und transdisziplinärer Forschung dient die Zusammenarbeit ebenso der Entwicklung von Forschungsmethoden, die eine Umsetzung der Erkenntnisse in der Praxis an Hand von prototypischen Projektstudien ermöglichen.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 16.12.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Anthropocene, Urbicene, Capitalocene
Angélil Marc, SiressCary (2018), Anthropocene, Urbicene, Capitalocene, in Domus, 15-17.
Ausblick auf eine selbstgenerierte Stadt
HehlRainer (2018), Ausblick auf eine selbstgenerierte Stadt, in Schäfer Klaus (ed.), transcript, Beilefeld, 177-192.
Doubling
AngélilMarc, SiressCary (2018), Doubling, in Princen Bas (ed.), Roma Publications, Amsterdam, 1-4.
Ethiopia’s Low-Cost Housing Program – How Concepts of Individual Home-Ownership and Mass Housing Blocks Fail to be Realized
DelzSascha (2018), Ethiopia’s Low-Cost Housing Program – How Concepts of Individual Home-Ownership and Mass Housing Blocks Fail to be Realized, in Heisel Felix, Hebel Dirk (ed.), Ruby Press, Berlin, 164-177.
Low-Cost at a High Price – Financial, Spatial and Social Inclusion Challenged by Individual Home-Ownership and Standardized Housing Blocks
Delz Sascha (2018), Low-Cost at a High Price – Financial, Spatial and Social Inclusion Challenged by Individual Home-Ownership and Standardized Housing Blocks, in TRIALOG , 3-4(130/131), 20-26.
Towards an Integrative Approach to Spatial Transformation – Addressing Contextual and Spatial Indifference in Design, Urban Planning and International Cooperation: A Case Study from Ethiopia
DelzSascha (2018), Towards an Integrative Approach to Spatial Transformation – Addressing Contextual and Spatial Indifference in Design, Urban Planning and International Cooperation: A Case Study from Ethiopia, in International Development Policy, (10), 188-212.
Cairo Desert Cities
Angélil Marc, Something Fantastic, CLUSTER Cairo, Malterre-Barthes Charlotte (ed.) (2017), Cairo Desert Cities, Ruby Press, Berlin.
Discourse on the Potentials for Innovation in Contemporary Planning
Angélil Marc, Kreiner Kristian, Van Wezemael Joris (2017), Discourse on the Potentials for Innovation in Contemporary Planning, in disP - The Planning Review, 53(1), 82-86.
A Legislative Space Known as Switzerland
Angélil Marc, BrandlhuberArno (2016), A Legislative Space Known as Switzerland, in Arch +: Legislating Architecture, 124-129.
Berlin Transfer: Open Living Structures
Hehl Rainer, EngelLudwig (2016), Berlin Transfer: Open Living Structures, Ruby Press, Berlin.
Cairo: Speculative Informality
Angélil Marc, SiressCary (2016), Cairo: Speculative Informality, in dsiP, (4), 6-15.
Cidade de Deus – A Biography
Angélil Marc, HehlRainer (2016), Cidade de Deus – A Biography, in Arch +, (May), 118-122.
Cultivating the Field in the Global Hinterland - Community Building for Mass Housing in the Amazon Region
Hehl Rainer (2016), Cultivating the Field in the Global Hinterland - Community Building for Mass Housing in the Amazon Region, in Bolchover Joshua et. al. (ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, 35-41.
Popular Brazilian Architecture in the Making - or the Power of Productive Consumption
Hehl Rainer (2016), Popular Brazilian Architecture in the Making - or the Power of Productive Consumption, in Petrescu Doina / Trogal Tim (ed.), Routledge, London, 259-272.
Spatial Dialogic – An Integrative Approach for Urban Development in Rapidly Changing Cities
Delz Sascha (2016), Spatial Dialogic – An Integrative Approach for Urban Development in Rapidly Changing Cities, in Heisel Felix & Kifle Bisrat (ed.), Birkhäuser, Basel, 190-200.
Spatial Effects of Individual Homeownership – Ethiopia's Mass Housing Program Between Universal Aspiration and Local Realities
Delz Sascha (2016), Spatial Effects of Individual Homeownership – Ethiopia's Mass Housing Program Between Universal Aspiration and Local Realities, in Angélil Marc & Hebel Dirk (ed.), Birkhäuser, Basel, 107-111.
Wilderness of Mirrors: Reflections on Territorial Agency
Angélil Marc, SiressCary (2016), Wilderness of Mirrors: Reflections on Territorial Agency, in W. Ding et al. (ed.), NAi010 Publishers, Rotterdam, 212-219.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Fundação Bento Rubião Brazil (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Instituto CASA Brazil (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Secretary for Housing at the Ministry of the Cities, Federal Government of Brazil Brazil (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Collective Housing – An International Panorama Talk given at a conference Housing the Co-op 31.07.2018 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Hehl Rainer;
European Conference on African Studies, University of Basel Talk given at a conference Integrating Spatial and Structural Transformation - Rethinking African Urbanization and Economic Development Through the Agency of Spatial Formation 29.06.2017 Basel, Switzerland Delz Sascha;
Intro Lecture Series, Studio of Ass. Prof. Milica Topalovic, ETH Zurich Individual talk The Cooperative Principle - Organizing Swiss Politics, Enterprises and Territories 09.05.2017 Zurich, Switzerland Delz Sascha;
No Cost Housing Conference, ETH Zurich Talk given at a conference How Models of Individual Home-Ownership and Housing Blocks Still Walk Abroad 30.06.2016 Zürich, Switzerland Delz Sascha;
Symposium hosted by Doreen Liu, with Li Zwang, Gong Dong, and Yuyang Liu, ETH Zurich Talk given at a conference China Making 17.05.2016 Zurich, Switzerland Angélil Marc;
Lecture Series on Global Housing, Department of Architecture, Technical University Delft, Chair of Architecture & Dwelling Individual talk Ethiopia’s Low-Cost Housing Program – How Models of Individual Home-Ownership and Housing Blocks still Walk Abroad 08.04.2016 Delft, Netherlands Delz Sascha;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Think.Design.Build.2 / Konferenz des IfA 08.11.2018 Berlin, Germany
Collective Housing – An International Panorama / Research Kooperation mit dem IPPUR Rio de Janeiro 31.07.2018 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
"Collective Housing in Switzerland and Germany" / Metabolizing Tokyo Exhibition Talk 02.03.2018 Tokyo, Japan Hehl Rainer;
"Cooperatives for Housing Production in Brazil: The Mutirao Movement" / International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) Global Conference 2017 Talk 16.11.2017 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Ventura Patricia;
"Housing Co-operatives in Berlin: New Trends for Self-Organized Living" / International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) Global Conference 2017 Talk 16.11.2017 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Hehl Rainer;
"Housing Laboratory Zurich - Three Models of Alliances to Increase the Impact of Housing Cooperatives" / International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) Global Conference 2017 Talk 16.11.2017 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Delz Sascha;
"New Housing Cooperatives of Zurich - An Alternative Way for Architectural Innovation & Urban Development" / Swiss Touch Table Campaign of the Embassy of Switzerland in the United States: More Than Living - Building Smart Communities for the Future Talk 17.05.2017 Washington D.C., United States of America Delz Sascha;
"How Global Actors, Knowledge and Technology Shape African Urbanization" / Lecture for Parlamentarische Gruppe Schweiz-Afrika (Thema: Zukunftsgestaltung in Afrika – Zement, Innovation, Ökologie, und Arbeitsplätze Talk 29.11.2016 Bern, Switzerland Delz Sascha;
"Constellations of People and Things" / Lecture at arc en rêve centre d’architecture Talk 02.06.2016 Bordeaux, France Angélil Marc;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
"Housing the Co-op: Workshop Session with and for Young Leaders" / International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) Global Conference 2017 / Co-operatives: Putting People at the Centre of Development 16.11.2017 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions "Die Stadt ist überall" / Treffpunkt Science City – Wie wir künftig bauen, wohnen und unterwegs sind German-speaking Switzerland 2018
Talks/events/exhibitions Beitrag / Venice Biennale of Architecture, 2018 / Brazilian Pavilion International 2018
Media relations: print media, online media Soziales Wohnungsbauprogramm Äthiopien – universale Ansprüche vs. lokale Realität TEC 21 German-speaking Switzerland 2018
Media relations: print media, online media Zum Städtebau im Raum der Agglomeration. Werk, Bauen + Wohnen German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Talks/events/exhibitions "Constellations of People and Things" / Lecture at arc en rêve centre d’architecture International 2016
Talks/events/exhibitions "Housing Cairo" / Installation at the Egyptian Pavilion, Venice Architecture Biennale International 2016
Talks/events/exhibitions "Spaces of Commoning and Advanced Informality" / Installation at the exhibition constellation.s International 2016

Abstract

The project ‘Cooperative Production of Low-cost Housing’ aims at joint research within an existing network of academic and institutional partners in Brazil and Switzerland for the development of cooperative models for the production of low-cost housing. This will unite researchers and practitioners from the fields of urban planning, architecture, engineering and the social sciences for investigating the transformative potential of urban developments based on community organizations and the formation of cooperatives. The collaboration between Brazilian and Swiss partners takes advantage of a long tradition of cooperative urban developments in each national context pertaining to diverse modes of production for low-income housing provision. In addition to the exchange of knowledge the collaboration will foster alternative models for affordable housing construction that actively involves user-groups in the development process and the management of housing estates on a long-term basis. Recognizing that housing for low-income populations is globally achieved either through informal and self-provisioning practices and market-driven state-developed mass housing programs, this joint research project intends to advance cooperative modes of production and is based on the rationale that more equitable, sustainable and higher quality livelihoods can be forwarded through cooperative models and fostered through increased collaboration between governmental institutions, the construction sector, and social organizations. Based on analysis of the Brazilian social housing program ‘Minha Casa, Minha Vida’ (MCMV), the current practice of mass housing production is questioned. In 2009, the Federal Government of Brazil launched the social housing program MCMV in order to cut the housing deficit of an estimated six million units by at least half. Since 2009 a large number of units for low-income populations have been developed by construction companies that were commissioned as key actors for the execution of the program. The mode of urban production dominated by the construction industry has led to the replication of mono-functional and generic models all over the country, mostly in remote locations. Although the program has already served about 2 million families, it has not managed to create sustainable and socially inclusive urban environments. Instead MCMV has generated dormitory towns with off-the shelf housing types that primarily serve short-term interests and stand in stark contrast to the rich Brazilian context of self-provisioned mixed neighborhoods. The newly built settlements are both physically as well as socially deficient, and will most probably lead to significant problems for urban developments in the future. Based on the production mode of large-scale construction industries, the implemented MCMV housing projects have reproduced one and the same standardized model without consideration for distinct local conditions such as climate, topography, social strata, ecological concerns, and the creation of diverse and equitable livelihoods. Due to the recognition of serious infrastructural problems within existing MCMV settlements, and in order to avoid the formation of urban ghettos in the future, the Federal Government is poised to promote alternative modes of mass housing production through participative models that involve social organizations and local interest groups in future planning and implementation processes. This research project investigates a specific branch of the program ‘Minha Casa, Minha Vida-Entities’, which accounts for 5% of the program and which is dedicated to self-organizing entities and cooperatives. Mediating between top-down and bottom-up practice, the research project seeks to improve collaboration between governmental institutions, the construction industries, and civil society organizations for the development of sustainable urban models that combine cooperative approaches for social formation and technological innovation.What are the modes of social organization inducing transformative potentials for social housing models and providing a structural basis for sustainable urban growth? Which actors and agencies are necessary to initiate a process that would enable innovative technologies for self-organizing communities?By assembling knowledge from different fields, the research will examine various scales of institutional practice, from international organizations such as the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) and the World Bank to governmental agencies, community based organizations and social movements in order to promote new networks of cooperation between political, economic, and social agencies. With a special focus on the case study of a pilot project for a cooperative development of the MCMV program, the findings of the research will be tested ‘in vivo’ within the framework of new guidelines for social housing that have been previously developed for the Ministry of the Cities of the Federal Government of Brazil by a group of Brazilian researchers in collaboration with the ETH Zurich (Seal of Urban Quality, 2013).Based on the experience of a previous collaborative project between Swiss and Ethiopian housing cooperatives coordinated by the Chair of Prof. Angélil, the research exchange transfers knowledge from the cooperative culture in Switzerland to the Brazilian case and vice versa, also serving as a test-bed for how to cope with the challenge of low-income housing provision worldwide.The goal of the collaboration is to build capacity and recalibrate governmental policies for low-income housing provision by investigating the various protocols and practices of the socio-technical development complex. Subsequently, the cooperation between Swiss and Brazilian researchers will contribute to the UN Millennium Development Goal of making cities and human settlements inclusive, resilient, and sustainable.
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