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Exploring Temporal Solitons in Optical Micro-resonators for Visible and Mid IR based Optical Frequency combs

English title Exploring Temporal Solitons in Optical Micro-resonators for Visible and Mid IR based Optical Frequency combs
Applicant Kippenberg Tobias Jan
Number 163864
Funding scheme Russia
Research institution Laboratoire de photonique et mesures quantiques EPFL - STI - IEL - LPQM2
Institution of higher education EPF Lausanne - EPFL
Main discipline Condensed Matter Physics
Start/End 01.11.2016 - 31.10.2019
Approved amount 250'000.00
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Keywords (1)

Silicon Nitride microresonators

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Ce projet vise à développer des sources de peignes de fréquence miniaturisées et cohérentes dans le visible et l’infrarouge moyen par formation d’un soliton temporel dans un micro-résonateur optique.
Lay summary

La découverte récente d’une méthode pour générer un soliton temporel à l’intérieur d’un micro-résonateur optique a permis d’obtenir des peignes de fréquence larges et cohérents dans le proche infrarouge au moyen de micro-résonateurs cristallins et de micro-résonateurs en nitrure de silicium intégrés sur puce. S’appuyant sur les progrès réalisés par les deux groupes, ce projet a pour but d’étendre ce type de peignes de fréquence à deux nouvelles gammes spectrales: (i) dans l’infrarouge moyen, en fabriquant des micro-résonateurs cristallins à dispersion contrôlée qui seront pompés par un laser à cascade quantique ; (ii) dans le visible, en fabriquant des micro-résonateurs en nitrure de silicium intégrés sur puce à dispersion normale. Les sources ainsi développées ouvriront la voie à une nouvelle classe d'instruments compacts s’étendant du moyen infrarouge au visible.

L’infrarouge moyen, correspondant à la fenêtre spectrale de signature des molécules, est particulièrement intéressant pour l’analyse respiratoire et la détection de traces de gaz. Le domaine visible, quant à lui, est avantageux pour l’imagerie Raman et l’observation des réactions chimiques. Les sources de peignes de fréquence compactes, tant dans la région de l’infrarouge moyen que dans le domaine visible, restent peu développées à ce jour et représentent un domaine de recherche très actif.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 16.12.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb
Raja Arslan S., Voloshin Andrey S., Guo Hairun, Agafonova Sofya E., Liu Junqiu, Gorodnitskiy Alexander S., Karpov Maxim, Pavlov Nikolay G., Lucas Erwan, Galiev Ramzil R., Shitikov Artem E., Jost John D., Gorodetsky Michael L., Kippenberg Tobias J. (2019), Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb, in Nature Communications, 10(1), 680-680.
Thermorefractive noise in silicon-nitride microresonators
Huang Guanhao, Lucas Erwan, Liu Junqiu, Raja Arslan S., Lihachev Grigory, Gorodetsky Michael L., Engelsen Nils J., Kippenberg Tobias J. (2019), Thermorefractive noise in silicon-nitride microresonators, in Physical Review A, 99(6), 061801-061801.
Spectral Purification of Microwave Signals with Disciplined Dissipative Kerr Solitons
Weng Wenle, Lucas Erwan, Lihachev Grigory, Lobanov Valery E., Guo Hairun, Gorodetsky Michael L., Kippenberg Tobias J. (2019), Spectral Purification of Microwave Signals with Disciplined Dissipative Kerr Solitons, in Physical Review Letters, 122(1), 013902-013902.
From the Lugiato–Lefever equation to microresonator-based soliton Kerr frequency combs
Lugiato L. A., Prati F., Gorodetsky M. L., Kippenberg T. J. (2018), From the Lugiato–Lefever equation to microresonator-based soliton Kerr frequency combs, in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 376(2135), 20180113-20180113.
Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs
Lucas E., Lihachev G., Bouchand R., Pavlov N. G., Raja A. S., Karpov M., Gorodetsky M. L., Kippenberg T. J. (2018), Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs, in Nature Photonics, 12(11), 699-705.
Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators
Kippenberg Tobias J., Gaeta Alexander L., Lipson Michal, Gorodetsky Michael L. (2018), Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators, in Science, 361(6402), eaan8083-eaan8083.
Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides
Guo Hairun, Herkommer Clemens, Billat Adrien, Grassani Davide, Zhang Chuankun, Pfeiffer Martin H. P., Weng Wenle, Brès Camille-Sophie, Kippenberg Tobias J. (2018), Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, in Nature Photonics, 12(6), 330-335.
Highly efficient coupling of crystalline microresonators to integrated photonic waveguides
Anderson M., Pavlov N. G., Jost J. D., Lihachev G., Liu J., Morais T., Zervas M., Gorodetsky M. L., Kippenberg T. J. (2018), Highly efficient coupling of crystalline microresonators to integrated photonic waveguides, in Optics Letters, 43(9), 2106-2106.
Breathing dissipative solitons in optical microresonators
Lucas E., Karpov M., Guo H., Gorodetsky M. L., Kippenberg T. J. (2017), Breathing dissipative solitons in optical microresonators, in Nature Communications, 8(1), 736-736.
Dynamics of platicons due to third-order dispersion
Lobanov Valery E., Cherenkov Artem V., Shitikov Artem E., Bilenko Igor A., Gorodetsky Michael L. (2017), Dynamics of platicons due to third-order dispersion, in The European Physical Journal D, 71(7), 185-185.
Soliton dual frequency combs in crystalline microresonators
Pavlov N G, Lihachev G, Koptyaev S, Lucas E, Karpov M, Kondratiev N M, Bilenko I A, Kippenberg T J, Gorodetsky M L (2017), Soliton dual frequency combs in crystalline microresonators, in Optics letters, (3), 514-517.
Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators
Guo H., Karpov M., Lucas E., Kordts A., Pfeiffer M. H. P., Brasch V., Lihachev G., Lobanov V. E., Gorodetsky M. L., Kippenberg T. J. (2017), Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators, in NATURE PHYSICS, (1), 94-102.
Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators
Guo H., Karpov M., Lucas E., Kordts A., Pfeiffer M. H. P., Brasch V., Lihachev G., Lobanov V. E., Gorodetsky M. L., Kippenberg T. J. (2017), Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators, in Nature Physics, 13(1), 94-102.
Mid-infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials
Lecaplain C., Javerzac-Galy C., Gorodetsky M. L., Kippenberg T. J. (2016), Mid-infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials, in Nature Communications, 13383-13383.
Harmonization of chaos into a soliton in Kerr frequency combs
Lobanov V. E., Lihachev G. V., Pavlov N. G., Cherenkov A. V., Kippenberg T. J., Gorodetsky M. L. (2016), Harmonization of chaos into a soliton in Kerr frequency combs, in Optics Express, (24), 27382-27382.

Datasets

Data and code for figures: Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs

Author Lucas, Erwan
Publication date 16.08.2018
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.1321270
Repository https://zenodo.org/record/1321270#.XA-UzzF7mw5


Data and code for figures in "Thermo-refractive noise in silicon nitride microresonators"

Author Huang, Guanhao; Lucas, Erwan; Liu, Junqiu; Raja, Arslan S.; Lihachev, Grigory; Gorodetsky, Michael L.; Engelsen, Nils J.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 17.06.2019
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.3247687.
Repository https://zenodo.org/record/3247688


Data and code for figures: Spectral purification of microwave signals with disciplined dissipative Kerr solitons

Author Weng, Wenle; Lucas, Erwan; Lihachev, Grigory; Lobanov, Valery E.; Guo, Hairun; Gorodetsky, Michael L.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 22.12.2018
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.5281/zenodo.2222430
Repository https://zenodo.org/record/2222431#.XfPou_wo82w


Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb

Author Raja, Arslan S.
Publication date 11.12.2018
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.1038/s41467-019-08498-2
Repository https://zenodo.org/record/2203625#.XfPqePwo82w


Data and code for article "Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nano-photonic waveguides"

Author Guo, Hairun; Herkommer, Clemens; Billat, Adrien; Grassani, Davide; Zhang, Chuankun; Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Weng, Wenle; Brès, Camille-Sophie; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
Publication date 16.04.2018
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.1038/s41566-018-0144-1
Repository https://zenodo.org/record/1170059#.XfPrTvwo82w


Data and code for figures: Breathing Dissipative Solitons in Optical Microresonators

Author Lucas, E.; Karpov, M.; Guo, H.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Kippenberg, T. J.
Publication date 06.07.2017
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.1038/s41467-017-00719-w
Repository https://zenodo.org/record/823538#.XfPtUvwo82w


Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Michael Gorodetsky, Russian Quantum Center Russia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Karlsruhe KIT / Prof. Koos Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Menlo Systems GmbH / Prof. Holzwarth Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
CLEO USA 2019 Talk given at a conference Thermo-refractive noise in silicon nitride microresonators 05.05.2019 San Jose, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO USA 2019 Talk given at a conference Nanophotonic Supercontinuum based Mid-Infrared Dual-Comb Spectroscopy 05.05.2019 San Jose, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO USA 2019 Talk given at a conference Electrically Driven Ultra-compact Photonic Integrated Soliton Microcomb 05.05.2019 San Jose, United States of America Liu Junqiu;
OFC2019 Talk given at a conference Electrically driven photonic integrated soliton microcomb 03.03.2019 San Diego, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
Frontier in Optics Talk given at a conference Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs 17.09.2018 Washington, D.C., United States Minor Outlying Islands Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
Advanced Photonic Congress Talk given at a conference Soliton-induced mid-infrared Cherenkov radiation in nano-photonic hybrid waveguides 02.07.2018 Zurich, Switzerland Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
2018 International Conference Laser Optics (ICLO) Talk given at a conference Investigation of Kerr frequency combs generation methods in normal GVD regime 04.06.2018 St. Petersberg, Russia Gorodetsky Michael;
2018 International Conference Laser Optics (ICLO) Talk given at a conference Semiconductor laser chip stabilization by Si3N4microresonator and Kerr comb generation 04.06.2018 St. Petersberg, Russia Gorodetsky Michael;
2018 International Conference Laser Optics (ICLO) Talk given at a conference Semiconductor laser chip stabilization by Si3N4microresonator and Kerr comb generation 04.06.2018 St. Petersberg, Russia Gorodetsky Michael;
CLEO 2018 Talk given at a conference Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs 13.05.2018 San Jose, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
CLEO 2018 Talk given at a conference Highly Efficient Coupling of Crystalline Microresonators to Integrated Photonic Waveguides 13.05.2018 San Jose, United States of America Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
High-brightness Sources and Light-driven Interactions Congress Talk given at a conference Soliton Kerr Frequency Combs and Coherent Mid-infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Silicon Nitride Integrated Waveguides 26.03.2018 Strasbourg, France Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
EFTF 2018 Talk given at a conference Mid-infrared optical frequency comb via coherent supercontinuum processes in nano-photonic waveguides 09.03.2018 Turin, Italy Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
EFTF 2018 Talk given at a conference Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs 09.03.2018 Turin, Italy Kippenberg Tobias Jan;
International Symposium on Application of Laser Dynamics (ISPALD) Talk given at a conference Breathing Dissipative soliton in optical microresonators 15.11.2017 Paris, France Kippenberg Tobias Jan;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media Frequency combs as microwave spectral filters Italian-speaking Switzerland Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland International German-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland 2019
Media relations: print media, online media Scientists build the smallest optical frequency comb to-date German-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland Italian-speaking Switzerland Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland International 2019
Media relations: print media, online media Microresonators offer a simpler approach to sensing with light pulses Italian-speaking Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland 2018
Media relations: print media, online media Breathing optical solitons Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland Italian-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland International German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Media relations: print media, online media A new method for obtaining of high-precision optical rulers devised International 2016
Media relations: print media, online media Capturing an elusive spectrum of light International Italian-speaking Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland Western Switzerland 2016
Media relations: print media, online media Controlling solitons Italian-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland International Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland 2016

Awards

Title Year
Highly Cited Researcher 2018 by Clarivate Analytics Ranked in the top 1% by citations in field of Physics 2018
ZEISS Research Award 2018
Fellow of The Optical Society (OSA) 2017
Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) 2016

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
150740 Mid Infrared spectral analysis instrumentation 01.12.2013 R'EQUIP
161573 Photonic Damascene Fabrication Process for High Q integrated SiN Photonic Circuits 01.04.2016 precoR
146823 Microresonators based Frequency combs in the visible and infrared 01.04.2013 Project funding

Abstract

The development of femtosecond optical frequency combs has had a tremendous impact on science and technology since their initial development in 2000. Aside from the well-known applications in precision frequency metrology(11, 12) and highly multiplexed spectroscopy, the ability to manipulate the amplitude and phase of precisely-defined spectral components has also opened up entirely new approaches in spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, LIDAR, low noise microwave generation, time transfer or photonic signal processing.Discovered by the Kippenberg Laboratory in 2007, micro-resonator optical frequency comb have triggered a second revolution in metrology, by enabling a dramatic miniaturization of frequency combs, enabling chipscale integration that is now being investigated by dozens of labs in particular the US. The ability to synthesize frequency combs directly on chip, provides a path to fully integrated optical combs that can make frequency measurements, frequency synthesis and comb sources ubiquitous and finally enter mainstream applications markets. Key advantages of microresonator frequency combs are their compact form factor, high power per comb line, and their ability to access repetition rates of 10-100 GHz, relevant for many application including high capacity telecommunications or microwave photonics. In addition the gain bandwidth is only limited by the transparency window, opening the ability to generate combs in the UV or mid IR spectral range.Over the past years there has been rapid and substantial progress in microresonator based frequency combs. Combs have been demonstrated in a variety of platforms, including crystalline resonators, silica toroid resonators, SiN microresonators on a silicon chip, or Hydex planar lightwave circuits. Moroever, microresonator combs have been used in proof of concept applications, including the demonstration of an optical atomic clock, optical waveform synthesis, as well as the demonstration of counting of the cycles of light as well as coherent communication with terabit per second using Kerr combs. In addition an understanding of the rich nonlinear dynamics has been obtained and low noise states been identified. The applicant has within this field made several contributions, several of which have been jointly with the group of Professor Gorodetsky in Moscow. The strong theoretical contributions from Prof. Gorodetsky and the advanced experimental capabilities and expertise in metrology of the Kippenberg Laboratory have led to several widely recognized advances in the field of microresonator combs (and cavity optomechanics, not mentioned here). This includes the first measurement of microresonator dispersion (Nature Photonics 2010), the first demonstration of the universal noise properties of Kerr combs (Nature Photonics 2012), the first octave spanning Kerr combs (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2010), the first demonstration of temporal solitons (Nature Photonics 2014) and an understanding of soliton dynamics in micro-resonators (Phys. Rev. Lett 2015). In particular, over the last two years the applicants at EPFL and MSU have discovered a new method to generate optical combs in a micro-resonator based on temporal solitons in optical micro-resonators. This result, is a decisive breakthrough in the field as it allows to generate optical combs that are coherent, broadband, can be accessed deterministically and can be simulated using the Lugiato Lefever equation. In most recent work EPFL/MSU have demonstrate Soliton propagation effects, and generated 2/3 of an octave frequency comb directly from a chip based microresonator. Building on these recent advances, the present proposal provides a framework to intensify the collaboration by proposing a joint experimental research program to address two new frontiers of microresonator frequency combs.First, we seek to demonstrate the generation of broadband frequency combs via soliton induced Cherenkov radiation in the mid IR, i.e. the molecular fingerprinting region. For this purpose MSU will fabricate especially designed crystalline belt resonators, that will be pumped with quantum cascade laser sources. Quantum Cascade Lasers are a revolutionary pump source in the mid IR that are commercially available, operate at room temperature and have narrow linewidth. Yet, they cannot achieve stable and reliable mode locking. By combining the QCL with a Kerr microresonator, broadband combs can be generated via soliton formation that are coherent. This work will have the potential to lead to unprecedentedly broad combs in the mid IR that can be used for molecular spectroscopy or dual comb spectroscopy. Preliminary results by EPFL have already demonstrated comb like spectra as wide as 200 cm(-1) in the mid IR. By using soliton formation and soliton induced Cherenkov radiation, comb spectra could be generated that are fully coherent and can exceed likely 1000 cm(-1), making it the broadest coherent comb spectrum directly synthesized using a QCL. To achieve soliton formation the crystalline resonator will be dispersion engineered via precision shaping of the diamond protrusions; which can be accomplished using the newly installed diamond precision turning machine at the Russian Quantum Centre by Professor Gorodetsky, while testing can be achieved in the mid IR equipped laboratory at EPFL.Second, we will investigate to achieve coherent comb formation in the normal dispersion regime, i.e. in the visible wavelength range; where microresonator frequency combs could be used for spectroscopy in the water window. Due to the absorption peaks in the UV almost all known dielectric materials have normal group velocity dispersion in the IR, thus preventing soliton formation. Recently Prof. Gorodetsky demonstrated theoretically a new class of dark pulses, called ‘flaticons’, that exist in the normal GVD regime. Here we propose to experimentally demonstrate this class of solitons (in experiments at the Russian Quantum Centre lead by Gorodetsky) using the SiN microresonators platform from EPFL. Summarizing, Prof. Kippenberg and Gorodetsky share already a proven and highly fruitful collaboration that has led to more than a dozen joint high impact papers. The present proposal would represent the first formal funding to be received by the two groups for their dedicated efforts in Kerr frequency combs that started in 2008, and would enable to intensify the collaboration in the vibrant and fast developing field of microresonator frequency combs. The research will be carried out both at MSU and EPFL and will utilize crystalline resonators fabricated at the Russian Quantum Science Centre - in the newly established experimental laboratory from Gorodetsky - and use SiN chipscale microresonators fabricated at EPFL. The work will be carried out by one PhD student at each node, with the support of one postdoctoral scholar for a limited amount of time. The research project could lead to compact, broadband and coherent frequency comb generators in the molecular fingerprinting regime, as well as the visible regime and extend the use of compact combs to new application, including spectroscopy, Raman spectral imaging or chemical analysis.
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