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Materialized Identities: Objects, Affects and Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450-1750

English title Materialized Identities: Objects, Affects and Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450-1750
Applicant Burghartz Susanna
Number 162966
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Departement Geschichte Universität Basel
Institution of higher education University of Basel - BS
Main discipline General history (without pre-and early history)
Start/End 01.04.2016 - 30.11.2020
Approved amount 716'462.00
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All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
General history (without pre-and early history)
Swiss history
Visual arts and Art history

Keywords (14)

emotional cultures; Early Modern; fashion and tradition; Reformation; innovation; values; craft; Renaissance; materiality; identities; gold; glas; veils; feathers

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Dieses Projekt wird sich mit den aktiven, handlungsorientierten Qualitäten von Material beschäftigen und zeigen, wie sich die Geschichte von Affekten und materieller Kultur historisch verbunden haben. Dabei wird es auch um kulturelle und religiöse Identitätsfragen im Umgang mit Objekten und Materialien gehen.
Lay summary

Das Projekt geht von neuen Perspektiven auf die materielle Kultur in der Frühen Neuzeit aus: Wir interessieren uns für die Resonanzen des Materials selbst und damit für die Fähigkeit von Dingen, ihren Status als stumme Objekte dank ihrer materiellen Eigenschaften zu überschreiten. Wir fragen danach, wie in einzelnen Kulturen und emotionalen Gemeinschaften der Umgang und die Auseinandersetzung mit spezifischen Materialien bewertet wurden, welche Emotionen sie hervorriefen und wie das Zusammenspiel von Materie und Affekten individuelle und Gruppenidentitäten formierte. Epochen unterscheiden sich auch durch ihre emotionalen Stile, Gemeinsamkeiten und Zwänge. Hier setzen wir mit der Frage ein, inwiefern auch Dinge und Objekte konstitutiv für historisch spezifische Subjektivitäten und Gefühle sind. Wir verfolgen diese Fragestellungen an vier ausgewählten Themen: Gold, Glas, Schleier und Federn. Diese Materialien und Objektgruppen interessieren uns ebenso mit Blick auf einzelne Individuen wie auch Deutungsgemeinschaften.

Vormoderne Gesellschaften waren in jahrhundertelange Auseinandersetzungen um die Gefährdung der sozialen Ordnung durch das Materielle verstrickt. Dies führte nicht zuletzt zu einem lang anhaltenden, ebenso fundamentalen wie ungelösten Konflikt zwischen Tradition und Mode. Von dieser grundlegenden Perspektive des Gesamtprojektes  ausgehend wollen wir das Verhältnis zwischen Kunst und Handwerk überdenken und dabei die Möglichkeiten der interdispziplinären Zusammenarbeit von Geschichte  und Kunstgeschichte gezielt durch den Einbezug von Experten des Materiellen wie Kuratoren und Produzenten erweitern.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 11.01.2016

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
MATERIAL ENCOUNTERS: KNOTTING CULTURES IN EARLY MODERN PERU AND SPAIN
HANß STEFAN (2019), MATERIAL ENCOUNTERS: KNOTTING CULTURES IN EARLY MODERN PERU AND SPAIN, in The Historical Journal, 62(3), 583-615.
Die Renaissance als Kultur der Nachahmung, Aneignung und Neuschöpfung
BurkartLucas (2019), Die Renaissance als Kultur der Nachahmung, Aneignung und Neuschöpfung, in Matzke Michael (ed.), Battenberg Gietl Verlag, Regenstauf, 7-27.
Plumes: visions de l'Amérique précolombienne
Hanß Stefan (2018), Plumes: visions de l'Amérique précolombienne, in Colonial Latin American Review, 26(4), 546-547.
Material Culture and Food - Conservation of Featherwork from Central and South America. Edited by Ellen Pearlstein . London: Archetype Publications, 2017. Pp. x, 106. 205 illustrations. $65.00 paper.
Hanß Stefan (2018), Material Culture and Food - Conservation of Featherwork from Central and South America. Edited by Ellen Pearlstein . London: Archetype Publications, 2017. Pp. x, 106. 205 illustrations. $65.00 paper., in The Americas, 75(1), 198-199.
Golden Kingdoms: Luxury Arts in the Ancient Americas. Edited by Joanne Pillsbury, Timothy Potts and Kim N. Richter. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum and Getty Research Institute, 2017.
HanßStefan (2018), Golden Kingdoms: Luxury Arts in the Ancient Americas. Edited by Joanne Pillsbury, Timothy Potts and Kim N. Richter. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum and Getty Research Institute, 2017., in The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Latin American History , 75(4), 755-756.
Zur inspection und handhabung der angestelten reformation: Die Basler Reformationsherren im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert
CalviSonia (2018), Zur inspection und handhabung der angestelten reformation: Die Basler Reformationsherren im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, in Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 118, 249-279.
Buchbesprechung: Contadini, Anna / Claire Norton (Hrsg.), The Renaissance and the Ottoman World, Farnham / Burlington 2013, Ashgate
Burkart Lucas (2016), Buchbesprechung: Contadini, Anna / Claire Norton (Hrsg.), The Renaissance and the Ottoman World, Farnham / Burlington 2013, Ashgate, in Zeitschrie fur Historische Forschung, 43(1), 127-129.
"Fashioned with Marvellous Skill”: Veils in the Costume Books of Sixteenth-century Europe
BondKatherine, "Fashioned with Marvellous Skill”: Veils in the Costume Books of Sixteenth-century Europe, in Göttler Christine, Burkart Lucas, Rublack Ulinka, Burghartz Susanna (ed.), Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
Befeathering the European: Feathers as Matter in the European Renaissance
Rublack Ulinka, Befeathering the European: Feathers as Matter in the European Renaissance, in American Historical Review, (March 2021).
Making Feather-work in Early Modern Europe
Hanß Stefan, Making Feather-work in Early Modern Europe, in Göttler Christine, Burkart Lucas, Burghartz Susanna, Rublack Ulinka (ed.), Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
Materialized Identities: Objects - Affects - Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450-1750
Burkart Lucas, Burghartz Susanna, Rublack Ulinka, Göttler Christine (ed.), Materialized Identities: Objects - Affects - Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450-1750, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
Materialized Identities: Objects - Affects - Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450-1750: Introduction
Burghartz Susanna, Burkart Lucas, Göttler Christine, Rublack Ulinka, Materialized Identities: Objects - Affects - Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450-1750: Introduction, in Göttler Christine, Burghartz Susanna, Burkart Lucas, Rublack Ulinka (ed.), Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
Moral Materials: Veiling in Early Modern Protestant Cities; The Cases of Basel and Zurich
BurghartzSusanna, Moral Materials: Veiling in Early Modern Protestant Cities; The Cases of Basel and Zurich, in Burkart Lucas, Burghartz Susanna, Rublack Ulinka, Göttler Christine (ed.), Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
Moving Feathers in the Material Renaissance
RublackUlinka, Moving Feathers in the Material Renaissance, in Gleixner Ulrike (ed.), Harassowitz, Wiesbaden.
Negotiating the Pleasure of Glass: Production, Consumption and Affective Regimes in Renaissance Venice
BukartLucas, Negotiating the Pleasure of Glass: Production, Consumption and Affective Regimes in Renaissance Venice, in Göttler Christine, Burkart Lucas, Rublack Ulinka, Burghartz Susanna (ed.), Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
New World Feathers and the Matter of Early Modern Ingenuity: Digital Microscopes, Period Hands, and Period Eyes
HanßStefan, New World Feathers and the Matter of Early Modern Ingenuity: Digital Microscopes, Period Hands, and Period Eyes, in Marcaida José Ramón, Oosterhoff Richard J., Marr Alexander (ed.), University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh.
Performing America: Feather-work and Affective Politics
Rublack Ulinka, Performing America: Feather-work and Affective Politics, in Burkart Lucas, Göttler Christine, Rublack Ulinka, Burghartz Susanna (ed.), Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
Shaping Identity through Glass in Renaissance Venice
Scuro Rachele, Shaping Identity through Glass in Renaissance Venice, in Rublack Ulinka, Burkart Lucas, Göttler Christine, Burghartz Susanna (ed.), Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
Shimmering Virtue: Joris Hoefnagel and the Uses of Shell Gold in the Early Modern Period
SeehaferMichèle, Shimmering Virtue: Joris Hoefnagel and the Uses of Shell Gold in the Early Modern Period, in Rublack Ulinka, Göttler Christine, Burghartz Susanna, Burkart Lucas (ed.), Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
Yellow, Vermilion, and Gold: Colour in Karel van Mander’s Schilder-Boeck
GöttlerChristine, Yellow, Vermilion, and Gold: Colour in Karel van Mander’s Schilder-Boeck, in Burghartz Susanna, Rublack Ulinka, Göttler Christine, Burkart Lucas (ed.), Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Rubenianum, Antwerp (Bert Watteeuw) Belgium (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Victoria and Albert Museum, London Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Historisches Museum Basel (Dr. Margret Ribbert, Dr. Sabine Sölch) Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Professor Deborah Howard, St John's College, University of Cambridge Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Schweizerisches Nationalmuseum Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Dr Spike Bucklow, St John's College, University of Cambridge Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Dr. Sven Dupré, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Jochen Luckhart, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Dr. Birgitt Borkopp-Restle, Universität Bern (Abegg Professur) Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Kunstmuseum Basel (Dr. Bodo Brinkmann) Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
German History Society Annual Conference Talk given at a conference Knowledge Production, Image Networks, and the Material Plausibility of Feathers in Sixteenth-Century Heidelberg 04.09.2019 King’s College London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Hanss Stefan; Rublack Ulinka;
Seminar series: ‘Affective Artefacts,’ convened by Stefan Hanß and Sasha Handley University of Manchester Talk given at a conference Luminous Veils and Radiant Faces: Affect and Enchantment in Sixteenth-Century Italian Fashion 03.04.2019 Manchester, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Bond Katherine Louise;
Postgraduate Advanced Training Seminar: ‘Fashioning Identity in Early Modern Europe’ University of Auckland Talk given at a conference The Fabric of Society: Veiling Cultures in Northern Spain, 1500 – 1600 29.03.2019 Auckland, New Zealand Bond Katherine Louise;
Postgraduate Advanced Training Seminar: ‘Fashioning Identity in Early Modern Europe Talk given at a conference The Fabric of Society: Veiling Cultures in Northern Spain, 1500 – 1600 29.03.2019 University of Auckland, New Zealand Bond Katherine Louise;
Renaissance Kolloquium «Verschleierte Renaissance» Talk given at a conference Form and Fancy: The Veils of Northern Spain, 1500-1600 14.12.2018 Basel, Switzerland Burghartz Susanna; Bond Katherine Louise; Burkart Lucas;
Questioning the Interface of Dress and Art History’ Talk given at a conference Applying the “Material Turn” to the Study of Dress and Art History 04.10.2018 York, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Bond Katherine Louise;
A Taste for the Exotic: Cross-Cultural Influences in Early Modern Dress and Textiles. Dressing the Early Modern Network Annual Conference Talk given at a conference Tastes from the Margins: Peripheral Fashions and Hybrid Forms in Early Renaissance Costume Albums 27.09.2018 Riggisberg, Switzerland Bond Katherine Louise;
GERMAN HISTORY SOCIETY ANNUAL CONFERENCE Talk given at a conference The Affect of Feathers at the Stuttgart Court 14.09.2018 University of Leicester, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Rublack Ulinka;
Workshop ‘Uncovering the Animal: Skin, Fur, Feathers, 1450-1700 Talk given at a conference Plumas para gorras y sombreros’: Feathers and Hats in the Early Modern Spanish World 29.06.2018 King’s College London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Hanss Stefan;
Arbeitsgespräch, Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel: Dinge unterwegs. Objekte im Kulturtransfer der Frühen Neuzeit Talk given at a conference Exotic Feathers and Early Modern European Dress 07.03.2018 Wolfenbüttel, Germany Rublack Ulinka;
Workshop: 'Unwrapping an Icon: Workshop of Dress and Jewellery' Victoria & Albert Museum, London Talk given at a conference Making Sense of the Veil in the Portrait, Lady with a Fur Wrap 23.02.2018 London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Bond Katherine Louise;
IHR seminar “Society, Culture and Belief 1500-1800” Talk given at a conference “New World Marvels and European Craft Cultures: Featherwork and Cultural Contacts in the Sixteenth Century” 25.01.2018 London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Hanss Stefan;
Imaginative Things: Curious Objects 1400-2000, Seminar series Talk given at a conference Featherworkers in Early Modern Europe 08.11.2017 CENTRE FOR RESEARCH IN THE ARTS, SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES, Cambridge, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Hanss Stefan;
Third Workshop of the Materialized Identities Group Talk given at a conference Discussion of publication drafts and research results 27.09.2017 Basel, Switzerland Rublack Ulinka; Hanss Stefan; Burghartz Susanna; Seehafer Michèle; Burkart Lucas; Scuro Rachele;
America in the Making of Early Modern Ingenuity Talk given at a conference Material Encounters: Knotting Cultures in Peru and Spain 30.06.2017 CENTRE FOR RESEARCH IN THE ARTS, SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES, Cambridge , Great Britain and Northern Ireland Hanss Stefan;
Ingenuity in the Making: Materials and Technique in Early Modern Europe Talk given at a conference New World Feathers and the Matter of Ingenuity 10.05.2017 CENTRE FOR RESEARCH IN THE ARTS, SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES, Cambridge , Great Britain and Northern Ireland Hanss Stefan;
Second Workshop of the Materialized Identities Group Talk given at a conference How objects were capable to generate group identities, subjectivity, and emotional atmospheres in the early modern period 16.03.2017 Bern and Zurich, Switzerland Rublack Ulinka; Burghartz Susanna; Seehafer Michèle; Hanss Stefan; Scuro Rachele; Göttler Christine; Calvi Sonia; Burkart Lucas;
Emotive Matter – lecture by Ulinka Rublack Individual talk Emotive Matter – lecture by Ulinka Rublack 14.03.2017 Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands Rublack Ulinka;
Research Seminar on European History 1300-1700 Individual talk From Commodity to Craft: The Matter of Feathers in the Material Renaissance 08.03.2017 Universiteit Leiden, Netherlands Rublack Ulinka;
Kolloquium Epistemic Images in Early Modern Germany and its Neighbours Talk given at a conference n dem Original Contrefaict dieses Vogels”: Marcus zu Lamm’s Epistemic Images of Birds 10.11.2016 CENTRE FOR RESEARCH IN THE ARTS, SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES, Cambridge, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Rublack Ulinka; Hanss Stefan;
First Workshop of the Materialized Identitites group Talk given at a conference Early modern objects: glass, gold, veils and feathers 06.10.2016 Cambridge, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Seehafer Michèle; Calvi Sonia; Rublack Ulinka; Scuro Rachele; Burkart Lucas; Burghartz Susanna; Hanss Stefan;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media When real men wore feathers The recreation of a Renaissance headdress reveals how European men har University of Cambridge International 2019
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Why (not) Feathers? Period Hands and Material Encounters in Colonial Peru Cambridge Core blog International 2019
Media relations: print media, online media Cambridge University recreates 16th Century feather craze hat BBC International 2019
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Free Access to Article of Materialized Identities Research Group Member https://www.materializedidentities.com/ International 2019
Media relations: print media, online media In Feather-Working, the Only Limitation is One’s Own Imagination University of Manchester: microscopic records International 2019
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Luminous Veils: Affect & Enchantment in Sixteenth-Century Italian Fashion Embodied Emotions Blog International 2019
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) NEW Seminar Series ‘Affective Artefacts’, University of Manchester https://www.materializedidentities.com/ International 2019
Media relations: print media, online media The Transformative, Talismanic Power of Feathers The New York Times Style Magazine International 2019
Video/Film When real men wore feathers International 2019
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Making a Tächli-Tüchli: the Reconstruction of an Eighteenth-Century Zürich Veil Materialized Identities Project Blog International 2018
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) New Book on Early Modern Courtly Matter: Stefan Hanß Conducting Research in Stuttgart Materialized Identities Project Blog International 2018
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Von mexikanischen Federn und goldenen Schildkröten: Wissensaustausch zwischen Cambridge und Stuttgar Landesmusem Württemberg: Der LMW-Blog International 2018
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Weaving Cultures: Textiles of the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology The collections International 2018
Media relations: print media, online media A feather in your cap: inside the symbolic universe of Renaissance Europe University of Cambridge International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Augsburg Featherworkers in the Past and Present: A Historian’s Visit to the Augsburger Puppenkiste Materialized Identities: Objects, Affects and Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450–1750 International 2017
Talks/events/exhibitions Emotive Matter – lecture by Ulinka Rublack International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Featherworkers in Early Modern Europe University of Cambridge Video & Audio Collections International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Interview with Francesca Trivellato https://www.materializedidentities.com/blog International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Matters of Colour: Glass Objects in a Rainbow of Shades in Renaissance Venice https://www.materializedidentities.com/blog International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Second Workshop of the Materialized Identities Group, Bern and Zurich, 16th–17th March 2017 Materialized Identities: Objects, Affects and Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450–1750 International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Strolling Through History: Urban Topographies of Feather-workers Materialized Identities: Objects, Affects and Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450–1750 International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) The Canaries are Dead! Aviculture, Excitement, and Loss in Eighteenth-Century Germany Materialized Identities: Objects, Affects and Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450–1750 International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) The Museo del Vetro in Murano: A Visit Worth Making https://www.materializedidentities.com/blog International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Third Workshop of the Materialized Identities group https://www.materializedidentities.com/blog International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Zooming into History: An Interview with Cristina Balloffet Carr on Examining Early Modern Textiles U Materialized Identities: Objects, Affects and Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450–1750 International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) First Workshop of the Materialized Identitites group, Cambridge, 6th – 7th October 2016 Materialized Identities: Objects, Affects and Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450–1750 International 2016
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) The World of Feathers Materialized Identities: Objects, Affects and Effects in Early Modern Culture, 1450–1750 International 2016
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Venetian Glass Beads: A Subtle Commodity https://www.materializedidentities.com/blog International 2016

Abstract

This project will engage with the agentive qualities of matter; it will show how affective dimensions in history connect with material history; and it will explore the religious and cultural identities dimensions of the use of objects and materials. It is embedded in a fresh perspective onto the material culture of the early modern period which has produced a distinguished historiography in recent years. We argue that it is important to address the vibrancy of matter itself, that is to say the ability of things to exceed their status as mute objects through their material properties. We will ask, how, in a particular culture and emotional community, were interactions with particular materials valorised and which emotions did they elicit? And how did the interplay of matter and emotion shape individual and group identities? Historians of emotions have firmly established that each period is distinguished by different emotional styles, communities and mandatory regimes. However, the role of objects as constitutive of subjectivities and emotions has only recently begun to attract scholarly attention. By taking current debates into new directions, this project seeks to formulate nuanced accounts of agentive materialities in relation to early modern social life, politics and cultures. To achieve this goal the project will approach ‘the material’ through four themes - gold, glass, veils and feathers - in relation to specific individuals as well as interpretative communities. These four types of materialities and object groups were each attached to different sensory regimes and valorisations, which underwent significant changes during this period.Our focus on materials and their relation to values and affects means working through a series of research questions, which will benefit especially from interdisciplinary collaboration. We work from the premise that subjectivities in this period emerged in relation to an ever-increasing object world. Artefacts embodied and produced values, they reflected and shaped emotional desires as well as bodily sensations. As historians and art historians have begun to show, artists and other creators and makers in the late medieval and early modern periods often played with, used and interrogated materiality. They were open to experiencing the qualities and histories of matter not in metaphorical terms but as potential carriers of sentient feeling. This dialogue with matter vigorously continued in the Reformation and confessional age. These redefined the spiritual status of matter rather than obliterating it, and we need to gain a much better understanding of how this was so. Almost everyone in late medieval and early modern society in some way lived from or experimented with transforming matter, through their labour, interests or quotidian practices. At the same time many of these societies were involved in a continuous struggle with materiality and its threats to societal order. A long-lasting conflict between tradition and fashion grew from these tensions, a conflict that remained unresolved throughout the Early Modern period. A crucial aspect of these insights is therefore that art and craft in this period was no frozen ‘tradition’ or just the realm of specific experts - the early modern period was a made world and a world in the making.Our methodologies will combine a qualitative analysis of serial records and ego-documents with object-led approaches. The cooperation of academics with curators and makers allows for fresh perspectives in the field and in turn impacts on museum exhibitions or displays. This proposed research group has five overarching aims:1. to rethink the category of materiality.2. to connect the history of material culture to the history of emotions.3. to shape religious milieus and cultures and to add protestant as well as converso-cultures into a European topography of Early Modern material culture dominated by catholic cultures of Renaissance Italy.4. to enhance the communication and collaboration between the academy and museums.5. to strengthen the visibility of Swiss research in the largely Anglo-American research debate on material history in the early modern world.
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