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Scope of credibility: Childrens selective trust in action and language learning

English title Scope of credibility: Childrens selective trust in action and language learning
Applicant Daum Moritz Matthäus
Number 162693
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Psychologisches Institut Universität Zürich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Psychology
Start/End 01.09.2016 - 28.02.2021
Approved amount 331'062.00
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Keywords (7)

Social learning; Development; Action; Imitation; Language; Selective trust; Credibility

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Der Mensch agiert und interagiert in und mit seiner sozialen Umwelt. Insbesondere Kinder erwerben dabei einen grossen Teil ihres Wissens durch diese sozialen Interaktionen.
Lay summary

Kinder erwerben ihr Wissen über die Welt zu einem grossen Teil durch die Interaktion mit sozialen Interaktions- und Kommunikationspartnern. Diese Form der kulturellen Weitergabe von Information wird als soziales oder kulturelles Lernen bezeichnet und bezieht sich auf Handlungen (z. B. ‚wie bediene ich diesen Apparat richtig?’) sowie auf Sprache (z. B. ‚wie heisst dieser Gegenstand?’). Aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse zeigen, dass Kinder nicht von allen sozialen Partnern (im Folgenden Modelle genannt) gleichermassen lernen. Sie berücksichtigen beim sozialen Lernen auch Kontextinformationen, zum Beispiel wie kompetent sich ein Modell vor einer spezifischen Lernsituation präsentiert.

Das beantragte Forschungsprojekt untersucht den Einfluss der Kompetenz eines Modells in den Domänen Sprache und Handlung auf das soziale Lernen von Kindern in diesen Domänen. Kinder im Alter von 2 bis 4 Jahren sehen in einer Familiarisierungsphase ein Modell das sich innerhalb einer Domäne oder über die beiden Domänen hinweg kompetent oder inkompetent verhält. In einer anschliessenden Testphase wird gemessen, ob und wie gut die Kinder von dem jeweiligen Modell eine neuartige Handlung beziehungsweise ein Wort für einen neuartigen Gegenstand lernen.

Die Ergebnisse dieses Projekts liefern Erkenntnisse darüber, ob soziales Lernen domänenübergreifend oder domänenspezifisch stattfindet und wie sich soziales Lernen in den ersten Lebensjahren des Kindes entwickelt. Daraus lassen sich Ableitungen über das Lernverhalten von Kindern ziehen, auf Basis derer Empfehlungen für pädagogische Konzepte ausgesprochen werden können.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 30.06.2016

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Datasets

Overt Attention in Selective Social Learning

Author Brehm, Julia; Daum, Moritz M.; Gampe, Anja
Persistent Identifier (PID) https://osf.io/u7qnk/?view_only=d9328f2643da4f0f9dcaae5f86bd601a
Repository OSF
Abstract
In the present study an ethnically representative sample of Swiss children at the ages of 2-, 3-, and 4-years (Mage = 3 years, N = 290 [150 male]) participated in a selective social learning task to assess (1) their flexibility in learning across the domains of language and action (trait reasoning), and (2) the influence of overt visual attention towards learning instances, while (3) reducing the strength of displayed incompetency to increase ecological validity. Children showed better word learning, but not better action imitation, from a competent than from an incompetent informant. However, there was neither evidence of trait reasoning nor evidence of overt attention differing between groups. Results are discussed in relation to social learning and ecological validity.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung, Berlin Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
SSECR Annual Meeting 2019 Poster Memory Processes in Selective Word Learning. 18.11.2019 Lausanne, Switzerland Gampe Anja; Daum Moritz Matthäus; Brehm Julia;
paEpsy 2019 Talk given at a conference Dynamics of Visual Attention Predict Learning of Novel Actions 09.09.2019 Leipzig, Germany Brehm Julia; Gampe Anja; Daum Moritz Matthäus;
paEpsy 2019 Poster Neural Mechanisms of Selective Learning 09.09.2019 Leipzig, Germany Brehm Julia; Daum Moritz Matthäus; Gampe Anja;
MaDoKo 2019 Poster You Don't Know Actions but do you Know Words?: Domain Specificity in Selective Trust 28.05.2019 Zürich, Switzerland Daum Moritz Matthäus; Brehm Julia; Gampe Anja;
Developmental Science Colloquium - TU Dortmund Individual talk Neuro-kognitive Mechanismen des selektiven Lernens 06.05.2019 Dortmund, Germany Gampe Anja; Daum Moritz Matthäus; Brehm Julia;
SRCD 2019 Biennial Meeting Talk given at a conference Attentional Processes in Selective Learning 21.03.2019 Baltimore, MD, United States of America Gampe Anja; Brehm Julia; Daum Moritz Matthäus;
Lab-Colloquium Psychotraumatologie KiSpi Zürich Individual talk Methoden zur Erfassung kognitiver Fahigkeiten im Kleinkindalter 05.12.2018 Zürich, Switzerland Daum Moritz Matthäus; Brehm Julia; Gampe Anja;
LIFE Fall Academy, University of Virginia Talk given at a conference Influence of Model Competency on Memory and Attention During Word Learning 11.10.2018 Ann Arbor, VA, United States of America Daum Moritz Matthäus; Brehm Julia; Gampe Anja;
DGPs-Kongress 2018 Talk given at a conference Development of Selective Trust in Action and Language Learning 16.09.2018 Frankfurt, Germany Gampe Anja; Daum Moritz Matthäus; Brehm Julia;
MaDoKo 2018 Poster Processes of Learning from Competent and Incompetent Models 17.05.2018 Zürich, Switzerland Daum Moritz Matthäus; Gampe Anja; Brehm Julia;
LIFE Fall Academy, University of Zurich Poster A multi-method approach to study cognitive mechanisms underlying selective learning 15.10.2017 Zürich, Switzerland Daum Moritz Matthäus; Gampe Anja; Brehm Julia;
LCICD 2017 Poster Scope of Credibility: Mechanisms of Selective Learning Across Domains 23.08.2017 Lancaster, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Brehm Julia; Daum Moritz Matthäus; Gampe Anja;
MaDoKo 2017 Poster Scope of Credibility: Selective Learning Across Domains 31.05.2017 Zürich, Switzerland Brehm Julia; Gampe Anja; Daum Moritz Matthäus;
LIFE Spring Academy, University of Michigan Talk given at a conference Scope of Credibility: Selective Learning Across Domains 24.05.2017 Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America Daum Moritz Matthäus; Brehm Julia; Gampe Anja;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Other activities UZH Kinderuni Workshop 2019: "Wie das Gehirn erzählt" German-speaking Switzerland 2019
Other activities UZH Kinderuni Workshop 2018: "Wie das Gehirn erzählt" German-speaking Switzerland 2018
Other activities UZH Kinderuni Workshop 2016: "Wie das Gehirn erzählt" German-speaking Switzerland 2016

Awards

Title Year
MaDoKo-Posterpreis 2019

Use-inspired outputs

Abstract

Children learn from the people around them. There are few cases where this is as obvious as in their learning of linguistic and behavioural conventions. But children do not simply take over anything from anybody. Quite the opposite is the case. Recent research demonstrates that children preferably learn novel words and actions from competent compared to incompetent models, a phenomenon called selective trust. That is, if children realise that a person is wrongly naming familiar objects, they are less likely to learn novel words from her. Similarly, if a person has a history of acting awkwardly upon familiar objects, children are less likely to learn novel actions from this model. So far, children’s selective trust has primarily been tested within a certain domain, either (and primarily) in the domain of language competence and language learning or (and less often) in the domain of action competence and action learning. Much less is known about how selective trust is transferred across domains and how it develops from infancy to preschool age. The purpose of the planned project is to address these questions by investigating children’s selective learning of novel actions and words within and across a model’s competence domain. To do so, the competence domains (action and language) and competence levels of models are systematically varied and its influence on children’s learning in two domains (action and language) is assessed in a series of four experiments. Standard methods that were established for research on selective trust will be applied and combined both for experimental manipulations and the assessment of children’s learning. The proposed project will improve our understanding of both, children’s selective learning and the development of cross-domain information processing.
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