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Parliamentary Careers in Comparison

English title Parliamentary Careers in Comparison
Applicant Bailer Stefanie
Number 162427
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Departement Gesellschaftswissenschaften Universität Basel
Institution of higher education University of Basel - BS
Main discipline Political science
Start/End 01.09.2016 - 29.02.2020
Approved amount 760'139.00
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Keywords (6)

career; institutions; federal system; legislative behaviour; parliament; post-parliamentary career choice

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Das Forschungsprojekt “Parlamentarische Karrieren im Vergleich” untersucht die Karrieren von parlamentarischen Kandidaten und Abgeordneten in Deutschland und der Schweiz von 1949 bis heute (vorparlamentarische Karrierewege, deren Entwicklung, deren Auswirkungen und postparlamentarische Karrierewahl).
Lay summary
Das Forschungsprojekt “Parlamentarische Karrieren im Vergleich” untersucht die Karrieren von parlamentarischen Kandidaten und Abgeordneten in Deutschland und der Schweiz von 1949 bis heute. Da die bisherige Karriereforschung über Parlamentarier häufig sehr deskriptiv war oder sich auf einzelne Länder konzentriert hat, analysieren wir biographische Daten und Verhaltensdaten von Parlamentariern mit zum Teil neuen Methoden (z.B. Sequenzanalyse), um typische Karrierepfade ins Parlament zu identifizieren und die Frage zu beantworten: Welche verschiedenen präparlamentarischen Karrierepfade ins Parlament gibt es in der Schweiz und in Deutschland und wie haben sich diese in den letzten 50 Jahren verändert? In einem weiteren Schritt untersuchen wir, welche Institutionen diese vorparlamentarischen Karrierepfade beeinflussen und welche Konsequenzen die Karrierepfade auf das Verhalten der Parlamentarier haben: In welchem Ausmass sind die unterschiedlichen Karrrierepfade von den Parteien, der föderalen Struktur und der Professionalisierung des Parlaments beeinflusst? Welche Konsequenzen haben die verschiedenen Karrierewege auf das Verhalten der Parlamentarier besonders in Bezug auf deren Abstimmungsverhalten, Ausschussarbeie, weitere individuelle Aktivitäten, sowie ihren weiteren Karriereverlauf? Der dritte Schritt des Projekts widmet sich der Analyse von postparlamentarischen Karriereverläufen von deutschen und Schweizerischen Parlamentariern und untersucht, welche persönlichen und institutionellen Faktoren ihre Entscheidung beeinflusst, ihre Karriere zu beenden, fortzusetzen, oder ein höheres öffentliches Amt oder eine Anstellung in der Privatwirtschaft anzustreben.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 22.03.2016

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Political or Financial Benefits? Ideology, Tenure, and Parliamentarians’ Choice of Interest Group Ties
Huwyler Oliver, Turner‐Zwinkels Tomas (2020), Political or Financial Benefits? Ideology, Tenure, and Parliamentarians’ Choice of Interest Group Ties, in Swiss Political Science Review, 26(1), 73-95.
Candidate Selection and Parliamentary Activity in the EU’s Multi-Level System: Opening a Black-Box
Euchner Eva-Maria, Frech Elena (2020), Candidate Selection and Parliamentary Activity in the EU’s Multi-Level System: Opening a Black-Box, in Politics and Governance, 8(1), 72-72.
Roll-call voting behaviour in legislatures
Hug Simon (2019), Roll-call voting behaviour in legislatures, in Rohrschneider Robert, Thomassen Jaques (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Exploring, Maintaining, and Disengaging - The Three Phases of a Legislator's Life
Bailer Stefanie Ohmura Tamaki (2018), Exploring, Maintaining, and Disengaging - The Three Phases of a Legislator's Life, in Legislative Studies Quarterly , 43(3), 493-520.
Shirking and Slacking in Parliament
Frech Elena, Goet Niels, Hug Simon, Shirking and Slacking in Parliament, in Legislative Studies Quarterly.
The winners of legislative mandate: An analysis of post‐parliamentary career positions in Germany and the Netherlands
Claessen Clint, Bailer Stefanie, Turner-Zwinkels Tomas, The winners of legislative mandate: An analysis of post‐parliamentary career positions in Germany and the Netherlands, in European Journal of Political Research.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dr. Philipp Korom, University of Graz Austria (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Jochen Rehmert Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof Lukas Schmid, Universität Luzern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Dr. Bjørn Høyland, University of Oslo Norway (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Alois Stutzer, Universität Basel Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Nathalie Giger, Universität Genf Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Frank R. Baumgartner, Unversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Exchange of personnel
Lukas Haffert Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Universität Bremen Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Mark Schelker Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof Dr Simon Hix, London School of Economics Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Fang Yi Chiou Taiwan (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Shane Martin, Anthony King Professor in Comparative Government, University of Essex Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Dr Richard Whitaker, University of Leicester Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Christian Breunig, Universität Konstanz Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Swiss Political Science Association: Annual Conference Talk given at a conference The Politics of Legislative Debate in Switzerland 03.02.2020 Lucerne, Switzerland Frech Elena;
European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) General Conference Talk given at a conference EF Panel Chair and Presentation of Controll paper 04.09.2019 Wrozlav, Poland Frech Elena;
Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association Talk given at a conference No Representation without Compensation: The Effect of Interest Groups on Legislative Behavior Beyond Voting 29.08.2019 Washington, United States of America Huwyler Oliver; Bailer Stefanie; Turner-Zwinkels Tomas;
ECPR General Conference Talk given at a conference The Times are Changing? Electoral Shifts, Control and the Selection of Newcomers 24.08.2019 Hamburg, Germany Turner-Zwinkels Tomas; Bailer Stefanie;
ECPR Parliaments Conference Talk given at a conference Changing Places in Parliament 29.06.2019 Leiden, Netherlands Bailer Stefanie; Hug Simon;
Standing Group on Parliaments (ECPR): Conference Talk given at a conference TTZ presentation of Controlling the share 27.06.2019 Leiden, Germany Frech Elena;
The Parliamentary Careers in Comparison Workshop Talk given at a conference Parliamentarians and Interest Groups: Drivers and Consequences of Collaboration 26.06.2019 Den Haag, Netherlands Huwyler Oliver;
The Parliamentary Careers in Comparison Workshop Talk given at a conference Gender, Quotas and Party ControlStudies on the Determinants of Parliamentary Representation of Women 26.06.2019 Den Haag, Netherlands Manow Philip; Turner-Zwinkels Tomas; Frech Elena;
Parliamentary Careers in Comparison Workshop Talk given at a conference Introduction 26.06.2019 Den Haag , Netherlands Bailer Stefanie;
The Parliamentary Careers in Comparison Workshop Talk given at a conference Presentation of the current state of research of individual career decisions 26.06.2019 Den Haag, Netherlands Turner-Zwinkels Tomas;
Annual Conference of the European Political Science Association Talk given at a conference More women in parliament, but why? The underrated role of replacement candidates 22.06.2019 Wien, Austria Bailer Stefanie; Frech Elena; Turner-Zwinkels Tomas;
European Political Science Association (EPSA): 9th Annual Conference Talk given at a conference EF presentation of Controlling the share, discussant 20.06.2019 Belfast, Ireland Frech Elena;
ECPR Joint Session of Workshops Talk given at a conference Parliamentarians’ Appeal to Interest Groups: Patterns and Timing of Signalling 12.04.2019 Nicosia, Cyprus Turner-Zwinkels Tomas;
Dreiländertagung der SVPW, ÖVPW, DVPW Talk given at a conference No Representation without Compensation: The Effect of Interest Groups on Legislative Behavior Beyond Voting 15.02.2019 Zürich, Switzerland Turner-Zwinkels Tomas; Huwyler Oliver; Bailer Stefanie;
American Political Science Association: Annual Meeting Talk given at a conference Shirking and Slacking in Parliament 30.08.2018 Boston, United States of America Frech Elena;
12th ECPR General Conference, European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) Talk given at a conference The Spoils of Agent Office: Determinants of Parliamentarian Behaviour Under Intra-Party Elite Conflict 25.08.2018 Hamburg, Germany Manow Philip;
European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR): General Conference Talk given at a conference EF, TZ, presentation of controlling the Share, EF, presentation TL paper 22.08.2018 Hamburg, Germany Frech Elena;
EPSA 8th Annual Conference, European Political Sciene Association (epsa) Talk given at a conference Picking from Pools of Different Sizes: Candidate Selection within Large and Small Parties 22.06.2018 Wien, Austria Manow Philip;
Annual Meeting of the European Political Science Association Talk given at a conference Parliamentarians’ Appeal to Interest Groups: Patterns and Timing of Signalling 22.06.2018 Wien, Austria Turner-Zwinkels Tomas; Huwyler Oliver; Bailer Stefanie;
European Political Science Association (EPSA): 8th Annual Conference Talk given at a conference More women in parliament, but why?: The underrated role of replacement candidates 21.06.2018 Wien, Austria Frech Elena;
Colloquium of the Mannheim Social Science Research Center (MZES) Individual talk Before, During and After a Parliamentarian's Life: Studying the Impact of Party, Gender and Ambition in Political Careers 08.05.2018 Mannheim, Germany Bailer Stefanie;
Swiss Political Science Foundation: Annual Meeting Talk given at a conference Shirking and Slacking in Parliament 04.05.2018 Geneva, Switzerland Frech Elena;
ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops Talk given at a conference The diminishing value of minority representation: between group representation and individual career paths 13.04.2018 Nicosia, Cyprus Bailer Stefanie;
Midwest Political Science Association: Annual Conference Talk given at a conference Shirking and Slacking in Parliament 05.04.2018 Chicago, United States of America Frech Elena;
Annual Meeting of the Swiss Political Science Association Talk given at a conference The Times are Changing? Ideological and Electoral Shifts and the Selection of Career Changers 05.02.2018 Geneva, Switzerland Bailer Stefanie; Turner-Zwinkels Tomas;
Party Competition in European Multi-level Systems, Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung (MZES) Individual talk Mixing Candidates, Separating MPs, Getting Accountability? The Separation of Career Tracks in the Federal German Polity, 1949-2009 24.11.2017 Mannheim, Germany Manow Philip;
Colloquium of the Mannheim Social Science Research Center (MZES) Individual talk The Times are Changing: Ideological and Electoral Shifts and the Recruitment of Career Changers to Parliament 22.11.2017 Mannheim, Germany Bailer Stefanie;
Seminar at the University of Fribourg Individual talk Shirking and Slacking in Parliament 11.11.2017 Fribourg, Switzerland Frech Elena;
The Political Economy of Mixed-Member Systems. Workshop, Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg (HWK) Individual talk When Lost Causes Are All the Reason: Germany’s Mixed-member Electoral System and the De-coupling of Parliamentary Career Paths, 1949-2009 06.10.2017 Delmenhorst, Germany Manow Philip;
Micro-foundations of party democracy. The re-inforcing and cross-cutting consequences of party membership and non-party affiliation, Fritz-Thyssen-Stiftung Individual talk Political Careers in a Federal Polity: State and National MPs in Germany, from 1949 to 2009 20.07.2017 Bremen, Germany Manow Philip;
European Political Science Association (EPSA): 7th Annual Conference Talk given at a conference EF: Panel Chair, Discussant, Presentation 22.06.2017 Milan, Italy Frech Elena;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Parliamentary Careers in Comparison Workhop 26.06.2019 Den Haag, Netherlands

Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Round Table about Swiss Elections organized by the British Embassy Berne Talk 14.10.2019 Berne, Switzerland Bailer Stefanie;
Treffen der Christlich-Demokratischen und Liberalen Frauen in Basel-Stadt Talk 26.10.2017 Basel, Switzerland Bailer Stefanie;
Teachers' Opening Conference: Key note speech on lobbying and interest representation in the Swiss Parliament given to the teaching body of a vocational training centre Talk 01.09.2017 Luzern, Switzerland Huwyler Oliver;
Opening of the European Youth Parliament Talk 16.03.2017 Basel, Switzerland Bailer Stefanie;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media ‘Welche Parlamentarier können sich Verwaltungsratsmandate leisten?’ DeFacto- Belegt, was andere meinen International 2020
Media relations: radio, television Die Baselbieter Grünen sind nur beim Ständerat nervös SRF 1 German-speaking Switzerland 2019
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) Helvetia ruft! zieht Bilanz International 2019
Media relations: print media, online media Roger Köppel, Tamy Glauser, Valentin Landmann – wie Ego-Politiker den Wahlkampf anheizen und zum Ris NRR German-speaking Switzerland 2019
Media relations: radio, television Die SP sucht einen Weg aus der Klemme Telebasel German-speaking Switzerland 2018
Media relations: radio, television Quereinsteiger in die Politk Hessischer Rundfunk International 2018
Media relations: radio, television MigrantInnen in der Politik RadioX German-speaking Switzerland 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Parliamentary Careers in Comparison eigene Website International 2016

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
183248 New Relations Between Voters and Representatives in the Age of Social Media 01.11.2018 Digital Lives
188235 Parliamentarians and Interest Groups: Drivers and Consequences of Collaboration 01.09.2019 Doc.Mobility
195721 Parliamentarians and Interest Groups: Drivers and Consequences of Collaboration (Follow-Up) 01.09.2020 Doc.Mobility
159370 Re-parliamentarization? A quantitative assessment of the Swiss Parliament's legislative function, 1987-2015 01.08.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

With the research project “Parliamentary Careers in Comparison” we propose to carry out an encompassing analysis of parliamentary candidates and parliamentarians and their activities in Switzerland and Germany as of 1949 until today. While parliamentary career research has often been rather descriptive, i.e. theoretically underspecified, confined to single countries, and/or non-dynamic, we aim to investigate biographical and behavioural data of parliamentary candidates and parliamentarians with partly novel tools (such as sequence analysis, see below) and over long periods of time in order to obtain a fuller picture of parliamentary careers. Why is this of importance? Elections are the quintessential ‘instrument of democracy’ (Powell, 2000). Running as a candidate, being endorsed by a party and then elected by voters, and subsequently re-running, being re-“nominated and re-elected - or not - constitutes the most basic mechanism that secures political responsiveness and accountability in a representative democracy (Manin et al., 1999); see Figure 1, below. Within the party group the control of party leaders over the nomination process is also the most powerful tool to secure party discipline - and is therefore one of the most important elements in the emergence of responsible government (Carey and Shugart, 1995, Cox, 1987a). Yet, despite the centrality of the delegation chains between voters and representatives and representatives and party group leaders we still lack a systematic, individual-level and dynamic understanding of the process of democratic delegation - and we therefore also lack in-depth information on how political careers impact parliamentary behaviour. This is partly explained by the scarcity of available data - in particular on episodes anterior and posterior to a parliamentary career. The project at hand aims to provide the collection and analysis of these data for two exemplary and in many respect similar cases, Switzerland and Germany, over a long period of time, and the subsequent analysis of this data with respect to career dynamics, representative roles, parliamentary behaviour, democratic accountability and conformity with the party line.A first set of questions revolves around the pre-parliamentary career path. What are the various pre-parliamentary career paths (defined by membership and offices held in the local/regional/national party offices) in Switzerland and Germany, and how have they changed over time? To what extent is the pre-parliamentary career path dependent on the local, regional and national party? How can these different pre-parliamentary career paths (e.g. party animals, career changers, young careerists) be explained - are they a function of the personal preferences and characteristics of parliamentarians (e.g. gender, ambition, profession) or are they a function of the parties and the party systems, e.g. the regional structure of parties, their size, their local autonomy? In a second set of questions we investigate how political institutions influence careers. What are the effects of electoral rules (district magnitude, effective and legal thresholds, proportional vs. majoritarian rules) on careers - and how do these effects differ with respect to candidates and parliamentarians? How do daily allowances and parliamentary pension schemes affect careers, what role does the interconnectedness of jurisdictional levels in federalist systems play? Do the different degrees of ‘institutionalisation’ between militia and full-time parliaments give rise to different career paths? Regarding the post-parliamentary career of German and Swiss parliamentarians we will investigate whether and which personal and institutional factors (e.g. professionalisation of parliament, committee strength, party structure) drive their decision to retire, to continue their career or to seek higher public office or private employment after having served in parliament.A third strand of research questions will focus on the consequences of the different career paths on parliamentary behaviour and future post-parliamentary careers, in particular with respect to voting, committees, higher offices and individual activities. We analyse whether MPs with career paths closely linked to a party follow the party line more closely and whether the parliamentary behaviour is reflected in the subsequent nomination process: Are loyal and active MPs rewarded and passive or dissenting MPs sanctioned with good (bad) list positions or promising and hopeless districts, respectively? Parliamentary career paths may also affect committee assignments and the chance to obtain higher offices in parliament since both in committees and in parliament, political parties distribute offices (committee chair, chamber presidency, party group leadership, etc.). Moreover, we aim to compare pre-parliamentary career paths and the choice of post-parliamentary positions and see under which circumstances parliamentary service is a stepping or stumbling stone in a career. The project aims to provide a comprehensive and dynamic picture of the causes, courses and consequences of parliamentary careers in Switzerland and Germany. These two countries provide useful cases for comparison since they are both federalist but offer variation in important factors such as degree of parliamentary professionalization and differing power of national parties.
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