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Magmas, ore deposits and geodynamic evolution at convergent margins

English title Magmas, ore deposits and geodynamic evolution at convergent margins
Applicant Chiaradia Massimo
Number 162415
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Département des sciences de la Terre Université de Genève
Institution of higher education University of Geneva - GE
Main discipline Geochemistry
Start/End 01.02.2016 - 31.01.2018
Approved amount 175'186.00
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Keywords (13)

copper and zinc isotopes; volcanic gases; geochronology; arc magmatism; clinopyroxene partition coefficient for Cu; subduction; high Sr/Y; Yanacocha; radiogenic isotopes; experimental petrology; amphibole partition coefficient for Cu; Chachimbiro; porphyry copper

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Trois quarts du Cu mondial, et des quantités importantes des métaux comme Au, Re et Mo, sont fournis par les gisements de type porphyre (incluant, le porphyre de Cu, les skarns, et la suite des gisements épithermaux). Ces gisements sont associés avec les roches magmatiques d’arc, produites par la subduction de la croûte océanique dessous la croûte continentale ou océanique. Tandis que les processus magmatiques et hydrothermaux à basse profondeur dans la croûte qui amènent à la précipitation des métaux dérivants du magma sont relativement bien connus, les processus géodynamiques et magmatiques se passant à grande profondeur dans le manteau et la croûte terrestre et qui jouent un rôle essentiel dans la formation de ces gisements sont peu connus.
Lay summary

Lead

Trois quarts du Cu mondial, et des quantités importantes des métaux comme Au, Re et Mo, sont fournis par les gisements de type porphyre (incluant, le porphyre de Cu, les skarns, et la suite des gisements épithermaux). Ces gisements sont associés avec les roches magmatiques d’arc, produites par la subduction de la croûte océanique dessous la croûte continentale ou océanique. Tandis que les processus magmatiques et hydrothermaux à basse profondeur dans la croûte qui amènent à la précipitation des métaux dérivants du magma sont relativement bien connus, les processus géodynamiques et magmatiques se passant à grande profondeur dans le manteau et la croûte terrestre et qui jouent un rôle essentiel dans la formation de ces gisements sont peu connus.

 

Contenu et objectifs du travail de recherché

Le but de ce projet est de mieux comprendre quelle est l’influence des processus profonds dans la formation des gisements de type porphyre. En particulier nous voulons mieux comprendre le lien entre la géodynamique des zones de subduction, la génération des magmas avec une géochimie particulière (p. ex., valeurs Sr/Y élevées) et la formation des gisements de type porphyre en étudiant des complexes magmatiques minéralisés (au Pérou) et non-minéralisés (en Equateur et aux Iles Eoliennes) et en les comparant entre eux.

 

Contexte scientifique et social du projet de recherche

Notre travail générera des résultats qui nous aiderons à mieux comprendre la genèse des gisements de type porphyre et donc à raffiner les modèle génétiques qui sont à la base des campagnes d’exploration des compagnies minière pour la recherche des nouvelles ressources. Ils nous aiderons aussi à mieux comprendre l’évolution de la croûte et les échanges des métaux entre croute et manteau de la Terre.

 

Keywords

Subduction, arc magmas, porphyry systems, porphyry copper, skarn deposits, epithermal deposits, copper gold, andesite, adakite-like, Andes, Aeolian islands
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 14.10.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Effects of aseismic ridge subduction on geochemistry of frontal arc magmas
Chiaradia Massimo, MüntenerOthmar, BeateBernardo (2019), Effects of aseismic ridge subduction on geochemistry of frontal arc magmas, in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1.
Geochemical evolution of the Quaternary Chachimbiro Volcanic Complex (Frontal Volcanic Arc of Ecuador)
Bellver Baca Maria Teresa, Chiaradia Massimo, Beate Bernardo, Beguelin Paul, Deriaz Bastien, Mendez-Chazarra N., Villagomez Diego (2019), Geochemical evolution of the Quaternary Chachimbiro Volcanic Complex (Frontal Volcanic Arc of Ecuador), in Lithos, 1.
Magmatic sulphides in Quaternary Ecuadorian arc magmas
Georgatou Ariadni, Chiaradia Massimo, Rezeau Hervé, Wälle Markus (2018), Magmatic sulphides in Quaternary Ecuadorian arc magmas, in Lithos, 296-299, 580-599.
Amphibole and apatite insights into the evolution and mass balance of Cl and S in magmas associated with porphyry copper deposits
Chelle-Michou Cyril, Chiaradia Massimo (2017), Amphibole and apatite insights into the evolution and mass balance of Cl and S in magmas associated with porphyry copper deposits, in Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 172(11-12), 105-105.
Insights into the genesis of the epithermal Au-Ag mineralization at Rio Blanco in the Cordillera Occidental of southwestern Ecuador: Constraints from U-Pb and Ar/Ar geochronology
Bineli Betsi Thierry, Ponce Miguel, Chiaradia Massimo, Ulianov Alex, Camacho Alfredo (2017), Insights into the genesis of the epithermal Au-Ag mineralization at Rio Blanco in the Cordillera Occidental of southwestern Ecuador: Constraints from U-Pb and Ar/Ar geochronology, in Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 80, 353-374.
Stochastic modelling of deep magmatic controls on porphyry copper deposit endowment
Chiaradia Massimo, Caricchi Luca (2017), Stochastic modelling of deep magmatic controls on porphyry copper deposit endowment, in Scientific Reports, 7(44523), 1-11.
Sulfide minerals in hydrothermal deposits
Fontboté Lluís, Kouzmanov Kalin, Chiaradia Massimo, Pokrovski Gleb S. (2017), Sulfide minerals in hydrothermal deposits, in Elements, 13, 97-103.

Datasets

Geochemical and radiogenic isotope data of 86 new rocks from 13 volcanic edifices of Ecuador and Colombia

Author Chiaradia, Massimo
Publication date 23.04.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.7813940
Repository figshare
Abstract
Geochemical and radiogenic isotope data of 86 new rocks from 13 volcanic edifices of Ecuador and Colombia produced in this study. Major and minor elements are expressed as oxides (wt.%) whereas trace elements are expressed as ppm; bdl = below detection limit; nm = not measured. Major and minor elements were measured by XRF, whereas all trace elements reported were measured by LA-ICPMS, except trace elements of Casitagua and Illiniza volcanoes which were measured by XRF. Radiogeni cisotopes were measured on a MC-ICPMS Neptune Plus. The epsilon-Nd value reported is calculated with respect to the CHUR reservoir, assuming a 143Nd/144Nd value of CHUR of 0.512638 (Wasserburg et al., 1981; Hamilton et al., 1983).

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Prof. Othmar Müntener, University of Lausanne, Switzerland Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Bernardo Beate, Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador Ecuador (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Urs Schaltegger, University of Geneva Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Alessandro Aiuppa, University of Palermo, Italy Italy (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Richard Spikings, University of Geneva Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Fermor Meeting 2017: Factory Earth Talk given at a conference KEYNOTE: Timescales of porphyry copper deposits: what they do tell us? 25.09.2017 Londres, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Chiaradia Massimo;
Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits Gordon Research Conference: From Deep Earth to Surface: Metals for Society Poster Genesis of porphyry systems: large magma chambers or specialised magmas? 19.09.2016 Les Diablerets, Switzerland Bellver Baca María Teresa;
Goldschmidt 2016 Talk given at a conference Giant porphyry systems: products of large magma chamber or Cu-rich magmas? 26.06.2016 Yokohama, Japan Bellver Baca María Teresa;


Self-organised

Title Date Place

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions TecDays 2019: A la recherche du temps perdu: le point de vue du géologue Western Switzerland 2019
Talks/events/exhibitions TecDays 2018: A la recherche du temps perdu: le point de vue du géologue Western Switzerland 2018
Talks/events/exhibitions TecDays 2016: A la recherche du temps perdu: le point de vue du géologue Western Switzerland 2016

Awards

Title Year
SEG (Society of Economic Geologists) Thayer Lindsley Visiting Lecturer 2020 The Thayer Lindsley Visiting Lecturer is selected on the basis of widely recognized expertise in a field of economic geology. Lecture sites will be primarily at colleges and universities having geologic programs related to mineral resources. 2019

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
149147 Magmas, ore deposits and geodynamic evolution at convergent margins 01.02.2014 Project funding
169032 Cycling of chalcophile metals in subduction zones 01.01.2017 Project funding

Abstract

The present proposal is for a 2-year extension of the SNF project N. 200020_149147 “Magmas, ore deposits and geodynamic evolution at convergent margins”. Funds are asked for a 2-year extension of the PhD salary of Ms. Maria Teresa Bellver Baca, fieldwork and attendance to conferences by the PhD student and the applicant, as well as for analytical work. Ms. Maria Teresa Bellver Baca has been engaged for this project since 1 February 2014.In the frame of this project we are focusing on two questions about the association between high Sr/Y magmas and porphyry systems: 1. Why porphyry systems occur in the final stages of a magmatic cycle characterized by a systematic increase in Sr/Y values through time? 2. Why magmatic cycles with increasing Sr/Y values associated with porphyry systems last several Ma as opposed to similar cycles in “barren” systems which last only 0.0X to 0.X Ma? A third point that we are also addressing is a more general: 3. Understanding the behavior of Cu during magmatic processes and at the magmatic-hydrothermal transition in active magmatic arc systems.Points 1 and 2 above are the focus of investigation of the PhD project of Maria Teresa Bellver Baca (Subproject A: Magmatic and time-scale factors controlling the association of porphyry-type deposits with high Sr/Y magmas). They are carried out contemporaneously in the giant porphyry-associated Au(-Cu) district of Yanacocha (northern Peru) and in the barren volcanic complex of Chachimbiro (northern Ecuador): the magmatic evolution through time of these two systems is very similar but the timescales of evolution differ by an order of magnitude (~4 Ma long at Yanacocha and ~450 Ka long at Chachimbiro). The aim of sub-project A is to provide detailed petrogenetic models for the two magmatic complexes through acquisition of whole rock/mineral chemical and isotopic compositions as well as radiometric dating (U-Pb on zircons, 40Ar/39Ar on amphibole and biotite, 14C for the youngest samples on fossil wood contained in pyroclastic flows). Geochemical and isotopic data of whole rocks and minerals and radiometric ages will be used to quantify physical parameters of magmatic processes (e.g., size of the magmatic reservoir, magma fluxes) at the two sites and compare results to infer metallogenic implications. Detailed mineral (amphibole, clinopyroxene, apatite, magnetite, magmatic sulphides) and melt inclusion major and trace element compositions by in situ techniques (microprobe, LA-ICPMS, SIMS) will be used to reconstruct and compare the behavior of metals and volatiles during magmatic evolution (increasing Sr/Y) at the two sites. Experimental determination of partition coefficients of Cu for amphibole/clinopyroxene-andesite melt will be used to better characterize the behavior of this chalcophile metal during magmatic evolution in conjunction with Cu contents acquired on amphibole and clinopyroxene phenocrysts from the two magmatic complexes.Point 3 above is the current research focus of the applicant in collaboration with Master students (Subproject B: Magmatic behavior of copper in magmatic arc systems) and is/will be carried out both through literature surveys and statistical treatment of databases (e.g., Chiaradia, 2014: Nature Geoscience 7, 43-46) as well as through field-based studies in the Aeolian islands of Vulcano and Stromboli. Investigation of the behavior of metals like copper in barren systems with “normal” Sr/Y ratios (i.e., Aeolian islands) both in magmatic rocks/minerals and in volcanic gases will help us to further constrain the factors which may lead to the preferential association of porphyry-type deposits with high Sr/Y magmas.
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