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Formation and Evolution of planetary systems

English title Formation and Evolution of planetary systems
Applicant Benz Willy
Number 160120
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Physikalisches Institut Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Start/End 01.04.2015 - 31.03.2017
Approved amount 802'434.00
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Keywords (5)

Exoplanets; Planet formation; Numerical simulations; Population synthesis; CHEOPS

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
La découverte de la première planète extrasolaire orbitant une étoile de type solaire en 1995 a déclenché une révolution dans notre compréhension des systèmes planétaires, leur formation et leur évolution. À ce jour, plus de mille exoplanètes et plusieurs milliers de candidates à le devenir se distinguent par leur diversité beaucoup plus grande qu’originellement envisagée.
Lay summary

Contenu et objectifs du projet de recherche

Le but de notre projet est la compréhension de la formation et de l’évolution des systèmes planétaires. Pour cela, deux approches sont développées. D’une part, nous construisons des modèles détaillés aidant à la compréhension de processus spécifiques à l’oeuvre pendant la formation et l’évolution des planètes. D’autre part, nous développons des modèles intégrés, ou globaux, permettant de suivre la formation et l’évolution d’un système planétaire. Ces derniers modèles reposent nécessairement sur des approximations mais permettent d’appréhender de manière globale l’interaction entre les différents processus. Enfin, une partie de notre projet de recherche a pour but la préparation et la mise en place des outils permettant la meilleure exploitation possible des données du satellite CHEOPS.

 Contexte scientifique et social du projet de recherche

Notre travail permettra d’améliorer la compréhension de la formation et l’évolution des planètes. A long terme ces recherches permettront de comprendre les processus et conditions menant à la formation de planètes semblables à la Terre et pouvant potentiellement être habitables. Une retombée importante de notre projet de recherche est aussi de mieux permettre la préparation et  l’exploitation de ces projets internationaux majeurs.

 Mots clés

Astrophysique, formation et évolution de planètes, modèles théoriques, CHEOPS

 

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 06.04.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
A generalized Bayesian inference method for constraining the interiors of super Earths and sub-Neptunes
Dorn C., Venturini J., Khan A., Heng K., Alibert Y., Helled R., Rivoldini A., Benz W. (2017), A generalized Bayesian inference method for constraining the interiors of super Earths and sub-Neptunes, in A&A, 597, 37-37.
Bayesian analysis of interiors of HD 219134b, Kepler-10b, Kepler-93b, CoRoT-7b, 55 Cnc e, and HD 97658b using stellar abundance proxies
Dorn C., Hinkel N., Venturini J. (2017), Bayesian analysis of interiors of HD 219134b, Kepler-10b, Kepler-93b, CoRoT-7b, 55 Cnc e, and HD 97658b using stellar abundance proxies, in A&A, 597, A38.
Formation and composition of planets around very low mass stars
Alibert Y., Benz W. (2017), Formation and composition of planets around very low mass stars, in A&A, 598, 5-5.
Formation of bi-lobed shapes by sub-catastrophic collisions. A late origin of comet 67P's structure
Jutzi M., Benz W. (2017), Formation of bi-lobed shapes by sub-catastrophic collisions. A late origin of comet 67P's structure, in A&A, 597, 62-62.
How primordial is the structure of comet 67P?. Combined collisional and dynamical models suggest a late formation
Jutzi M., Benz W., Toliou A., Morbidelli A., Brasser R. (2017), How primordial is the structure of comet 67P?. Combined collisional and dynamical models suggest a late formation, in A&A, 597, 61-61.
The language of exoplanet ranking metrics needs to change
Tasker E., Tan J., Heng K., Kane S., Spiegel D., Brasser R., Casey A., Desch S., Dorn C., Herlund J., Houser C., Laneuville M., Lasbleis M., Libert A.-S., Noack L., Unterborn C., Wicks J. (2017), The language of exoplanet ranking metrics needs to change, in Nature Astronomy, 1, 42.
Probing TRAPPIST-1-like Systems with K2
Demory B. Queloz D. Alibert Y. Gillen E. Gillon M. (2016), Probing TRAPPIST-1-like Systems with K2, in Astrophysical Journal, 825, 25.
Bayesian analysis of interiors of HD 219134b, Kepler-10b, Kepler-93b, CoRoT-7b, 55 Cnc e, and HD 97658b using stellar abundance proxies
Dorn C., Hinkel N., Venturini J. (2016), Bayesian analysis of interiors of HD 219134b, Kepler-10b, Kepler-93b, CoRoT-7b, 55 Cnc e, and HD 97658b using stellar abundance proxies, in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 597, A38.
Close-in planetesimal formation by pile-up of drifting pebbles
Drazkowska J. Alibert Y. Moore B. (2016), Close-in planetesimal formation by pile-up of drifting pebbles, in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 594, 105.
Constraining the volatile fraction of planets from transit observations
Alibert Y. (2016), Constraining the volatile fraction of planets from transit observations, in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 591, 79.
Planet formation with envelope enrichment: new insights on planetary diversity
Venturini J., Alibert Y., Benz W. (2016), Planet formation with envelope enrichment: new insights on planetary diversity, in A&A, 596, 90-90.
The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXVIII. Bayesian re-analysis of three systems. New super-Earths, unconfirmed signals, and magnetic cycles
Díaz R. F., Ségransan D., Udry S., Lovis C., Pepe F., Dumusque X., Marmier M., Alonso R., Benz W., Bouchy F., Coffinet A., Collier Cameron A., Deleuil M., Figueira P., Gillon M., Lo Curto G., Mayor M., Mordasini C., Motalebi F., Moutou C., Pollacco D., Pompei E., Queloz D., Santos N., Wyttenbach A. (2016), The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXVIII. Bayesian re-analysis of three systems. New super-Earths, unconfirmed signals, and magnetic cycles, in A&A, 585, 134-134.
Can we constrain the interior structure of rocky exoplanets from mass and radius measurements?
Dorn C., Khan A., Heng K., Connolly J. A. D., Alibert Y., Benz W., Tackley P. (2015), Can we constrain the interior structure of rocky exoplanets from mass and radius measurements?, in A&A, 577, 83-83.
CHEOPS Performance for Exomoons: The Detectability of Exomoons by Using Optimal Decision Algorithm
Simon A. E., Szabó G. M., Kiss L. L., Fortier A., Benz W. (2015), CHEOPS Performance for Exomoons: The Detectability of Exomoons by Using Optimal Decision Algorithm, in PASP, 127, 1084-1084.
Constraining planet structure from stellar chemistry: the cases of CoRoT-7, Kepler-10, and Kepler-93
Santos N. C., Adibekyan V., Mordasini C., Benz W., Delgado-Mena E., Dorn C., Buchhave L., Figueira P., Mortier A., Pepe F., Santerne A., Sousa S. G., Udry S. (2015), Constraining planet structure from stellar chemistry: the cases of CoRoT-7, Kepler-10, and Kepler-93, in A&A, 580, 13-13.
Critical core mass for enriched envelopes: the role of H$_{2}$O condensation
Venturini J., Alibert Y., Benz W., Ikoma M. (2015), Critical core mass for enriched envelopes: the role of H$_{2}$O condensation, in A&A , 576, 114-114.
Elemental ratios in stars vs planets
Thiabaud Amaury, Marboeuf Ulysse, Alibert Yann, Leya Ingo, Mezger Klaus (2015), Elemental ratios in stars vs planets, in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 580, 30.
From stellar to planetary composition: Galactic chemical evolution of Mg/Si mineralogical ratio
Adibekyan V., Santos N.C., Figueira P., Sousa S.G., Delgado-Mena E., Mordasini C., Dorn C, Hakobyan A.A., Israelian G. (2015), From stellar to planetary composition: Galactic chemical evolution of Mg/Si mineralogical ratio, in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 581, L2.
From stellar to planetary composition: Galactic chemical evolution of Mg/Si mineralogical ratio
Adibekyan V., Santos N. C., Figueira P., Dorn C., Sousa S. G., Delgado-Mena E., Israelian G., Habokyan A. A., Mordasini C. (2015), From stellar to planetary composition: Galactic chemical evolution of Mg/Si mineralogical ratio, in A&A, 581, L2.
The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXVII. Five new long-period giant planets and a system update
Moutou C., Lo Curto G., Mayor M., Bouchy F., Benz W., Lovis C., Naef D., Pepe F., Queloz D., Santos N.~C., Ségransan D., Sousa S.~G., Udry S. (2015), The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXVII. Five new long-period giant planets and a system update, in A&A, 576, 48-48.
The unstable CO2 feedback cycle on ocean planets
Kitzmann D., Alibert Y., Godolt M., Grenfell J. L., Heng K., Patzer A. B. C., Rauer H., Str (2015), The unstable CO2 feedback cycle on ocean planets, in MNRAS, 452, 3752.
Theoretical models of planetary system formation. II. Post-formation evolution
Pfyffer S., Alibert Y., Benz W., Swoboda D. (2015), Theoretical models of planetary system formation. II. Post-formation evolution, in A&A, 579, 37-37.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
C. Baruteau, OAMP Toulouse France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
C. Mordasini, University of Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
G. Gobalek, Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Univ. of Bayreuth Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
O. Guilera, P. Ronco, La Plata University Argentina (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
M. Ikoma, Tokyo University Japan (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
M. Jutzi, University of Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
P. Tackley, J. Conolly, M. Meyer, ETHZ Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
A. Morbidelli, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, Nice France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
S. Udry, D. Queloz, F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ehrenreich, University of Geneva Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
T. Henning, MPIA, Heidelberg Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
R. Helled, University of Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Special seminar during interviews for Lecturer position Individual talk The characterization of exoplanet interiors 02.03.2017 Cambridge, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Dorn Caroline;
Ariel space mission conference Talk given at a conference The formation of exoplanets 21.11.2016 Brussels, Belgium Alibert Yann;
Académie de l'air et de l'espace, Videoconference Individual talk The CHEOPS mission 17.11.2016 Bern, Switzerland Benz Willy;
ELSI Planetary diversity workshop Talk given at a conference Interiors of exoplanets 14.11.2016 Tokyo, Japan Dorn Caroline;
Colloquium, Alba Nova University Individual talk Comets, Rosetta, and the origin of the solar system 13.10.2016 Stockholm, Sweden Benz Willy;
ACCRETE group meeting Talk given at a conference Interiors of low-mass exoplanets: what can we learn from data? 10.10.2016 Nice, France Dorn Caroline;
ISSI-Europlanet Forum Talk given at a conference The formation of planetary systems 13.09.2016 Bern, Switzerland Benz Willy;
Kavli Symposium on the Future of Exoplanetary Science Talk given at a conference Planet formation: What are the observations really telling us? 05.09.2016 Cambridge, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Benz Willy;
Colloquium, Lab. astrophysique de Marseille Individual talk Comets, Rosetta, and the origin of the solar system 04.04.2016 Marseille, France Benz Willy;
Cavendish Physical Society Lecture Individual talk Comets, Rosetta, and the origin of the solar system 16.03.2016 Cambridge, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Benz Willy;
The astrophysics of planetary habitatiliby Talk given at a conference Planet formation and habitability 08.02.2016 Vienna, Austria Alibert Yann;
ELSI Symposium Talk given at a conference Interiors of low-mass planets: what can we learn from observations? 13.01.2016 Tokyo, Japan Dorn Caroline;
ISSI Workshop on The Delivery of Water to Proto-planets, Planets and Satellites Talk given at a conference Growing planets with water-rich envelopes 11.01.2016 Bern, Switzerland Venturini Julia;
Space research seminar Individual talk Rosetta and the origin of the solar system 28.10.2015 Bern, Switzerland Benz Willy;
Missions to habitable worlds Talk given at a conference the CHEOPS mission 27.10.2015 Budapest, Hungary Alibert Yann;
20 years of giant exoplanets Talk given at a conference planet formation and composition 05.10.2015 Observatoire de Haute Provence, France Alibert Yann;
Invited discourse & Peter Gruber memorial lecture, IAU Genereal Assembly Talk given at a conference Rosetta and the origin of the solar system 03.08.2015 Honolulu, Hawai, United States of America Benz Willy;
Pathways towards habitable exoplanets conference Talk given at a conference Conditioning interiors of low-mass rocky exoplanets to abundances of their host stars 14.07.2015 Bern, Switzerland Dorn Caroline;
Royal Society International Scientific Seminar Talk given at a conference Retrieving the bulk composition of low-mass exoplanets 24.06.2015 Chicheley Hall, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Dorn Caroline;
First Espresso Science meeting Talk given at a conference Interior structure of low-mass exoplanets: what can we learn from data? 12.05.2015 Geneva, Switzerland Dorn Caroline;
Invited conference, Tokyo Institut of Technology Individual talk Integrated planet formation models: from protoplanetary disks to water rich planets 27.04.2015 Tokyo Institut of Technology, Japan Alibert Yann;
Invited conference, Tokyo University Individual talk Integrated planet formation models: from protoplanetary disks to water rich planets 24.04.2015 Tokyo, Japan Alibert Yann; Venturini Julia;


Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
EuroScience Open Forum Talk 27.07.2016 Manchester, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Benz Willy;
Besuch des Bundesrates in corpore Talk 07.07.2016 Bern, Switzerland Benz Willy;
Veranstaltung Parlamentarische Gruppe Luft- und Raumfahrt Talk 15.03.2016 Bern, Switzerland Benz Willy;
Dies Academicus, event with D. Sobel Talk 04.12.2015 Bern, Switzerland Benz Willy;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions Trappist-1 discovery event German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Talks/events/exhibitions 147. Jahresversammlung des SVTI: Auf der Suche nach Leben im Universum German-speaking Switzerland 2016
Talks/events/exhibitions Conférence Société Neuchâteloise astronomes amateurs: La recherche d'une deuxième terre Western Switzerland 2016
Talks/events/exhibitions Rotary Forum Oberwallis German-speaking Switzerland 2016
Talks/events/exhibitions Foundation BBVA Lecture Series: Comets and planets International 2015
Talks/events/exhibitions Frühlingsmesse Graz: Exoplaneten International 2015

Awards

Title Year
University of Berne, Faculty prize (for PhD work) in physics 2016

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
172746 Formation and Evolution of planetary systems 01.04.2017 Project funding
175630 Mars’ long-term interior evolution: Combined collision and thermochemical models constrained by InSight results 01.08.2018 Project funding
146500 Formation and Evolution of planetary systems 01.04.2013 Project funding
134731 Formation and Evolution of planetary systems 01.04.2011 Project funding
146500 Formation and Evolution of planetary systems 01.04.2013 Project funding

Abstract

The work proposed here is a coherent theoretical effort to study the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We consider the evolution of the gaseous proto-planetary disc and follow the formation of planets from the accumulation of dust grains to the runaway gas accretion, which leads to the formation of giant gaseous planets. The ultimate goal of our research is to provide a framework in which constraints on planet formation and evolution theory can be derived from observations of the ensemble of exoplanets. For this to be possible, a link must be established between individual physical and/or chemical processes at work during planet formation and evolution and observable properties of either individual objects/systems or the entire population of exoplanet.Planet population synthesis allows establishing such a link. Over the years we have aimed at developing population synthesis models based on actual physical and chemical descriptions of individual processes trying to reduce as much as possible the free parameters. Since, by nature, an end-to-end simulation of the formation of even a single planet is impossible to carry out in a complete and detailed manner, we have focused our work on simplifying as much as possible the individual processes while at the same time ensuring that their respective feed-backs are taken into account. This is necessary to derive a self-consistent approach since many of the processes involved have similar timescales. Obviously, in this approach the difficulty lies in identifying how far the problem can be simplified while still conserving the overall properties of the emerging planet population, including their mean values and dispersions. Guidance must come as much as possible from observations and from detailed modelling of all individual processes entering in the computations of a planet population. The various sub-projects (A.1 to A.4) described in Part A of this proposal aim at developing or improving the different physical/chemical processes involved in planet formation and evolution theory in order to eventually include them in the full population synthesis model (A.5). As we are building on past efforts, we steadily improve the level at which planet formation and evolution is being modelled in order to be able to compare as many observables as possible with simulation results. To further improve the link between theory and observation, we are also taking part in observational programmes (3.6m/HARPS) and instrument developments (VLT/ESPRESSO). Furthermore, we have studied and proposed the CHEOPS project in response to ESA’s small mission call. Our project was ultimately selected out of 26 competing proposals. CHEOPS is a Swiss-lead project dedicated to search for exoplanet transits on stars already known to host planets. Part B of this proposal describes how we intend to use our models to prepare and optimise the science that will be carried out by CHEOPS. This includes the selection of targets for the mission as well as studies determining how constraining the knowledge of mass and radius (including their respective uncertainties) are on the determination of the internal structure of a planet and on its accretion history.
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