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Fluids and ore forming processes in the continental crust (cont)

English title Fluids and ore forming processes in the continental crust (cont)
Applicant Fontboté Lluis
Number 160071
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Département des sciences de la Terre Université de Genève
Institution of higher education University of Geneva - GE
Main discipline Geochemistry
Start/End 01.04.2015 - 31.10.2016
Approved amount 216'449.00
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Keywords (4)

geochemistry; Ore; deposits; metallogeny

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Fluides et processus formateurs de formateurs de gisements métallifères dans la croûte continentale. Les ressources minérales sont essentielles pour la société. La compréhension des mécanismes de formation des gisements métallifères est indispensable pour l’exploration minérale. Cette étude doit apporter des réponses à plusieurs questions fondamentales concernant l'origineun type de gisements polymétalliques formés dans des systèmes magmato-hydrothemaux.
Lay summary

A) Les systèmes magmato-hydrothermaux qui donnent lieu aux gisements de type cuivre porphyrique, peuvent aussi former, dasn les parties supérieures et/ou distales du systèmedes gisements épithermaux  polymétalliques, dont les éléments économiques sont le cuivre, le zinc, le plomb, l’argent et traces  d'autres métaux. Ils sont formés à <3 km de profondeur et à des températures inférieures à 350°C. De précédentes recherches montrent une similitude entre les fluides à l’origine des porphyres cuprifères et ceux qui forment ces gisements polymétalliques. Le fluide minéralisateur provient d’un processus d’exsolution de fluides aqueux pendant la cristallisation de magmas générés à l'aplomb de zones de subduction. En utilisant plusieurs méthodes géochimiques, nous souhaitons étudier l’évolution de ces fluides hydrothermaux dans le temps et dans l’espace depuis les fluides les plus chauds (>300°C) qui précipitent principalement des minéraux du cuivre (malgré leur teneur importante en autres métaux) jusqu’aux fluides de température moindre (<300 °C) à l’origine des gisements polymétalliques de type "Cordilleran". Pour cette étude, deux gisements polymétalliques de type Cordilleran particulièrement bien étudiés, situés dans les Andes Péruviennes, Cerro de Pasco et Colquijirca, ont été choisis.

B) Le projet inclut aussi la fin d'une étude sur des gisements de plomb et zinc dans de roches sédimentaires formés par des fluides aqueux de basse température d'origine non-magmatique. Les exemples choisis, qui incluent le gisement de Laisvall, se trouvent dans la chaine Calédonienne en Suède. Une approche innovante utilisant géophysique aéroportée, cartographie structurale, modélisation des gisements connus en 3D et plusieurs méthodes géochimiques et géochronologiques cherche à comprendre les contrôles structuraux de ces gisements, l'âge de la minéralisation et les mécanismes de précipitation des sulfures de plomb et de zinc (y compris le rôle joué par le soufre réduit par des hydrocarbures).

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 28.05.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Petroleum as source and carrier of metals in epigenetic sediment-hosted mineralization
Saintilan Nicolas J., Spangenberg Jorge E., Chiaradia Massimo, Chelle-Michou Cyril, Stephens Michael B., Fontboté Lluís (2019), Petroleum as source and carrier of metals in epigenetic sediment-hosted mineralization, in Scientific Reports, 9(1), 8283-8283.
Fluid Inclusion Studies in Opaque Ore Minerals: II. A Comparative Study of Syngenetic Synthetic Fluid Inclusions Hosted in Quartz and Opaque Minerals
Kouzmanov K., Audétat A., Wälle M., Ubrig N., Ortelli M., Fontboté L., Casanova V. (2018), Fluid Inclusion Studies in Opaque Ore Minerals: II. A Comparative Study of Syngenetic Synthetic Fluid Inclusions Hosted in Quartz and Opaque Minerals, in Economic Geology, 113(8), 1861-1883.
Mineralized breccia clasts: a window into hidden porphyry-type mineralization underlying the epithermal polymetallic deposit of Cerro de Pasco (Peru)
Rottier Bertrand, Kouzmanov Kalin, Casanova Vincent, Bouvier Anne-Sophie, Baumgartner Lukas P., Wälle Markus, Fontboté Lluís (2018), Mineralized breccia clasts: a window into hidden porphyry-type mineralization underlying the epithermal polymetallic deposit of Cerro de Pasco (Peru), in Mineralium Deposita, 53(7), 919-946.
Ore Deposits of the Central Andes
Fontboté Lluís (2018), Ore Deposits of the Central Andes, in Elements, 14(4), 257-261.
Cyclic Dilution of Magmatic Metal-Rich Hypersaline Fluids by Magmatic Low-Salinity Fluid: A Major Process Generating the Giant Epithermal Polymetallic Deposit of Cerro de Pasco, Peru
Rottier B., Kouzmanov K., Casanova V., Wälle M., Fontboté L. (2018), Cyclic Dilution of Magmatic Metal-Rich Hypersaline Fluids by Magmatic Low-Salinity Fluid: A Major Process Generating the Giant Epithermal Polymetallic Deposit of Cerro de Pasco, Peru, in Economic Geology, 113(4), 825-856.
Reply to discussion of “A refined genetic model for the Laisvall and Vassbo Mississippi Valley-type sandstone-hosted deposits, Sweden: constraints from paragenetic studies, organic geochemistry, and S, C, N, and Sr isotope data” by D. Sangster
Fontboté Lluís, Saintilan Nicolas J. (2018), Reply to discussion of “A refined genetic model for the Laisvall and Vassbo Mississippi Valley-type sandstone-hosted deposits, Sweden: constraints from paragenetic studies, organic geochemistry, and S, C, N, and Sr isotope data” by D. Sangster, in Mineralium Deposita, 53(2), 295-297.
Sulfide Minerals in Hydrothermal Deposits
Fontboté Lluís, Kouzmanov Kalin, Chiaradia Massimo, Pokrovski Gleb S. (2017), Sulfide Minerals in Hydrothermal Deposits, in Elements, 13(2), 97-103.
Future Global Mineral Resources
Arndt Nicholas T., Fontboté Lluís, Hedenquist Jeffrey W., Kesler Stephen E., Thompson John F.H., Wood Daniel G. (2017), Future Global Mineral Resources, in Geochemical Perspectives, 1-171.
Polyphase vein mineralization in the Fennoscandian Shield at Åkerlandet, Järvsand, and Laisvall along the erosional front of the Caledonian orogen, Sweden
Saintilan Nicolas J., Stephens M.B., Spikings R., Schneider J., Chiaradia M., Spangenebrg Jorge E., Ulianov Alexey, Fontboté Lluís (2017), Polyphase vein mineralization in the Fennoscandian Shield at Åkerlandet, Järvsand, and Laisvall along the erosional front of the Caledonian orogen, Sweden, in Mineralium Deposita, 52, 823-844.
A refined genetic model for the Laisvall and Vassbo Mississippi Valley-type sandstone-hosted deposits, Sweden: constraints from paragenetic studies, organic geochemistry, and S, C, N, and Sr isotope d
Saintilan N. J. Spangenberg J. E. Samankassou E. Kouzmanov K. Chiaradia M. Stephens M. B. (2016), A refined genetic model for the Laisvall and Vassbo Mississippi Valley-type sandstone-hosted deposits, Sweden: constraints from paragenetic studies, organic geochemistry, and S, C, N, and Sr isotope d, in Mineralium Deposita, 51, 639-664.
Heterogeneous melt and hypersaline liquid inclusions in shallow porphyry type mineralization as markers of the magmatic-hydrothermal transition (Cerro de Pasco district, Peru)
Rottier Bertrand, Kouzmanov Kalin, Bouvier Anne-Sophie, Baumgartner Lukas P., Wälle Markus, Rezeau Hervé, Bendezú Ronner, Fontboté Lluís (2016), Heterogeneous melt and hypersaline liquid inclusions in shallow porphyry type mineralization as markers of the magmatic-hydrothermal transition (Cerro de Pasco district, Peru), in Chemical Geology, 447, 93-116.
Sulfide replacement processes revealed by textural and LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses: Example from the early mineralization stages at Cerro de Pasco, Peru
Rottier B. Kouzmanov K. Wälle M. Bendezú R. & Fontboté L. (2016), Sulfide replacement processes revealed by textural and LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses: Example from the early mineralization stages at Cerro de Pasco, Peru, in Economic Geology, 111, 1347-1367.
Control of reactivated Proterozoic basement structures on sandstone-hosted Pb-Zn deposits along the Caledonian front, Sweden: Evidence from airborne magnetic data, structural analysis, and ore-grade m
Saintilan Nicolas J., Stephens Michael B., Lundstam Erik, Fontboté Lluís (2015), Control of reactivated Proterozoic basement structures on sandstone-hosted Pb-Zn deposits along the Caledonian front, Sweden: Evidence from airborne magnetic data, structural analysis, and ore-grade m, in Economic Geology, 110, 91-117.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Prof. Torsten Venemann/UNIL Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Urs Schaltegger, Dr. Massimo Chiaradia, Dr. Richard Spikings/UNIGE Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Michael Stephens/Geological Survey Sweden Sweden (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
146353 Fluids and ore forming processes in the continental crust (cont) 01.04.2013 Project funding
165752 Distal skarns as an ore-forming environment 01.07.2016 Project funding
169901 Magmatic-hydrothermal transition in the world class Sn District of San Rafael, Peru: multi-isotopic characterization 01.03.2017 Project funding

Abstract

Sub-project A "FLUID EVOLUTION IN THE MIOCENE POLYMETALLIC CORDILLERAN DEPOSITS OF COLQUIJIRCA AND CERRO DE PASCO" (Continuation of two Ph.D. thesis projects, supervision Prof. L. Fontboté and Dr. K. Kouzmanov) focuses on the evolution of ore-forming fluids generating Cordilleran polymetallic mineralization in the shallow epithermal environment of porphyry systems. The Colquijirca and Cerro de Pasco deposits in central Peru are revisited. Recently our group provided the first evidence about multiple porphyry events in Cerro de Pasco, prior to and possibly post-dating polymetallic mineralization, thus suggesting complex and polyphase evolution of these systems. Using the existing detailed descriptions on their geology, mineral and alteration zonation, high-precision geochronology data set on various magmatic and hydrothermal events, the goal of the present project is to constrain the physical parameters and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids in both deposits and their evolution in time. At Cerro de Pasco, having more complex history, mineralizing fluid evolution is traced from the early high P-T porphyry environment trough the shallow low P-T epithermal environment, to a late stage shallow porphyry system. Melt inclusion study is a complementary part of the project, aiming to define metal, sulphur and volatile content of silicate melts during late stages of crystallization in a shallow crustal magma chamber, and their partition into magmatic fluids. At Colquijirca, displaying classical lateral metal zoning pattern, the fluid inclusion study aims to decipher the factors controlling metal zonation in Cordilleran systems. Combination of analytical techniques allows robust data set of PVTX properties of inclusion fluids to be created - visible and near-IR light microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, LA-ICP-MS, O isotope analyses on minerals, Sr, Pb, Cl and potentially Cu isotopes, and cation and anion analyses by chromatography.The work is structured in the following way:A1) Ph.D. student Vincent Casanova (Ph.D. thesis started on 1 April 2012): Fluid processes and deposition mechanisms in a zoned high-sulfidation carbonate-replacement epithermal system: Colquijirca, Peru.A2) Ph.D. student Bertrand Rottier (Ph.D. thesis started on 1 October 2012): Fluid evolution in the shallow part of a porphyry system: melt and fluid inclusion study at Cerro de Pasco, central PeruSub-project B "SPATIAL CONTROLS, AGE AND ORIGIN OF STRATABOUND SANDSTONE-HOSTED AND VEIN PB-ZN DEPOSITS ON THE SWEDISH CALEDONIDES" (request for 1 month salary for Ph.D. student Nicolas Saintilan, supervision Prof. L. Fontboté and Dr. Michael Stephens, Geological Survey of Sweden, Upsala). Since this project is almost finalized and has followed the plan detailed in the last proposal, we just list the accepted and submitted publications, as well as manuscripts in progress.Not approved: Sub-project C "MAGMATIC-HYDROTHERMAL TRANSITION IN THE WORLD CLASS Sn DISTRICT OF SAN RAFAEL, PERU» (request for a new Ph.D. position, supervision Dr. K. Kouzmanov and Prof. L. Fontboté) focuses on the fluid processes at the magmatic-hydrothermal transition in a world-class Sn-Cu deposit, associated with peraluminous granitic magmatism - the San Rafael-Quenamari magmatic-hydrothermal system in southern Peru. This subproject C tackles the time scale of late-magmatic hydrothermal processes, factors controlling the segregation and release of magmatic fluids from the crystallizing magma, and the mineralizing potential of these fluids. The system displays striking vertical metal zonation, and the fluid inclusion study aims to highlight the mechanisms of ore metal precipitation responsible for this zonation. The projects builds up on excellent published geological, mineralogical and geochemical information as on own experience in the area. New equipment allows performing various analyses (high-precision U-Pb TIMS dating, melt and fluid inclusion studies) on samples with quantitative textural control (Qemscan) and high spatial resolution isotope analyses (oxygen, hydrogen, boron - ion probe SwissSIMS) on magmatic and hydrothermal minerals and so gain new insight on the parameters that control the magmatic-hydrothermal transition in this kind of deposits. In addition, physical parameters and chemical compositions of ore-forming fluids will be studied with already routinely used analytical methods described in sub-project A.
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