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Annotated scores as primary sources for research into the interpretation of orchestral music in the late 19th and 20th centuries: Richard Wagner and his successors in the Austro-German conducting tradition

English title Annotated scores as primary sources for research into the interpretation of orchestral music in the late 19th and 20th centuries: Richard Wagner and his successors in the Austro-German conducting tradition
Applicant Walton Chris
Number 159787
Funding scheme Project funding
Research institution Institut Interpretation Hochschule der Künste Bern Berner Fachhochschule
Institution of higher education Berne University of Applied Sciences - BFH
Main discipline Music, Theatre
Start/End 01.09.2015 - 31.08.2019
Approved amount 248'621.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Music, Theatre
Musicology

Keywords (6)

Orchestral music; Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770-1827); Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756-1791); 19th century music; Interpretation studies; Wagner, Richard (1813-1883)

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Richard Wagner veröffentlichte 1869 die erste bedeutende theoretische Abhandlung über die Kunst des Dirigierens. Seine Vorstellungen über die Interpretation der klassischen und romantischen Orchestermusik wurden von späteren Generationen als allgemeingültig erklärt. So gilt er als Ursprung einer Dirigiertradition, die von seinem eigenen Studenten Hans von Bülow über Arthur Nikisch, Felix Weingartner, Gustav Mahler und Richard Strauss bis Wilhelm Furtwängler weitergeführt wurde.
Lay summary

Ziel dieses Projekts ist es, eine detaillierte Geschichte der Interpretation jenes Kernorchesterrepertoires zu erforschen; wie die Wagnersche Kunst des Dirigierens verstanden, missverstanden oder sogar verworfen wurde. Die Kontinuitäten und Brüche in jener Tradition werden erörtert und erforscht. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf den Werke des klassischen bzw. romantischen Repertoires, die für Wagner selbst von besonderer Bedeutung waren. Hauptquellen sind die Dirigierpartituren und Orchestermaterialien, die von Dirigenten zum Eigengebrauch annotiert wurden. Diese Annotationen reichen von Bogenstrichen, Dynamikzeichen, Ausdruckszeichen und Tempomodifikationen bis hin zu sprachlichen Hinweisen auf die gewünschte Interpretation.

Diese Tradition fand erst mit dem Aufkommen der historisch informierten Aufführungspraxis der 1960er-Jahre ein Ende, als man darauf erpicht war, auf die «authentischen» Aufführungspraktiken der Vorromantik zurückzugreifen. Aus diesem Grund ist dieses Projekt grundsätzlich auf die Zeit von 1850 bis ca. 1970 beschränkt.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 07.09.2015

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Richard Wagner published the first major treatise on conducting and interpretation in 1869. His ideas on how to interpret the core Classical and early Romantic orchestral repertoire were declared the benchmark by subsequent generations of conductors, making him the originator of a conducting tradition by which those who came after him defined their art - starting with Wagner’s student Hans von Bülow and progressing from him to Arthur Nikisch, Felix Weingartner, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, Wilhelm Furtwängler and beyond.
Lay summary

The aim of this project is to provide a detailed history of interpretation of the core orchestral repertoire in that tradition, examining how interpretive ideas were handed down from one generation to the next – how they were perpetuated, misunderstood or rejected. Both consistencies and ruptures within that tradition will be identified and investigated. We will focus on those works of the Classical and early Romantic canon that were the object of Wagner’s particular attention and that offer us a more or less unified corpus of material. Our principal sources will be the scores and parts annotated by conductors for their own use in rehearsal and concert. These annotations can range from bowing instructions to dynamics, expression marks, tempo modifications and even verbal clues as to the desired interpretation.

This tradition can be said to have come to an end only with the rise of historically informed performance practice (“HIPP”) in the 1960s, with its declared intention to return to “authentic” performance practices of the pre-Romantic era. For this reason, the present project stretches from roughly 1850 to 1970.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 07.09.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Name Institute

Publications

Publication
Bonn
WaltonChristopher (2020), Bonn, in Opera, 71(4), 480-482.
Gender and sexuality
WaltonChristopher (2020), Gender and sexuality, Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 232-244.
In Wagner's footsteps
WaltonChristopher (2020), In Wagner's footsteps, in The Wagner Journal, 14(2), 55-56.
A place in the pantheon
WaltonChristopher (2020), A place in the pantheon, in The Wagner Journal, 14(1), 94-96.
Family and upbringing
WaltonChristopher (2020), Family and upbringing, Cambridge UP, New York, 3-10.
Lock her up!
WaltonChris (2020), Lock her up!, in Opera, 71(12), 1415-1420.
Wagner, Berlioz and the origins of "Über das Dirigieren"
WaltonChristopher (2020), Wagner, Berlioz and the origins of "Über das Dirigieren", in The Wagner Journal, 14(3), 49-57.
»Ein so erklärtes Lieblingsstück der hiesigen Kunstfreunde«. Die Rezeptionsgeschichte der Jupiter-Sinfonie in Beethovens Wien
MoorChristoph (2019), »Ein so erklärtes Lieblingsstück der hiesigen Kunstfreunde«. Die Rezeptionsgeschichte der Jupiter-Sinfonie in Beethovens Wien, in Gartmann Thomas, Allenbach Daniel (ed.), Argus, Schliengen, 195-204.
Leonore, Isolde, Lulu: the strange afterlife of Beethoven’s ‘Immortal Beloved.
WaltonChris (2019), Leonore, Isolde, Lulu: the strange afterlife of Beethoven’s ‘Immortal Beloved., in The Musical Times, 160(1947), 43-53.
Manhandling Mahler
WaltonChris (2019), Manhandling Mahler, in Opera, 12(70), 1524-1529.
Meiningen, Das Schloss Dürande
WaltonChristopher (2019), Meiningen, Das Schloss Dürande, in Opera, 72(2), 1412-1413.
Not Richard and Famous
WaltonChristopher (2019), Not Richard and Famous, in The Wagner Journal , 13(2), 83-85.
Richard Wagner und seine Nachfolger in der zentraleuropäischen Dirigiertradition.
MoorChristoph (2019), Richard Wagner und seine Nachfolger in der zentraleuropäischen Dirigiertradition., in www.musikforschung.de, online.
Solothurn, Giovanna D'Arco
WaltonChristopher (2019), Solothurn, Giovanna D'Arco, in Opera, 71(2), 208.
Von innen und von außen. Beethovens Neunte Sinfonie und die ›Wagner’sche‹ Dirigiertradition
WaltonChristopher (2019), Von innen und von außen. Beethovens Neunte Sinfonie und die ›Wagner’sche‹ Dirigiertradition, in Allenbach Daniel, Gartmann Thomas (ed.), Argus, Schliengen, 218-237.
A newly found portrait of Richard Wagner's Dresden Soprano Louise Corrodi.
WaltonChris (2018), A newly found portrait of Richard Wagner's Dresden Soprano Louise Corrodi., in Marinkovic Sonja, Stojanović-Novičić Dragana (ed.), Faculty of Music, Belgrad, 239-246.
Richard Flury and the Politics of the Unpolitical.
Walton Christopher (2018), Richard Flury and the Politics of the Unpolitical., in New Sound International Journal of Music, 50, 42-49.
Virtual. Panel Discussion.
Walton Christopher, Schüler Nico, Cobussen Marcel (2018), Virtual. Panel Discussion., in New Sound International Journal of Music, 50, 17-23.
Vom Vergessen und Erinnern in Südafrika.
Walton Christopher (2018), Vom Vergessen und Erinnern in Südafrika., in Schweizer Musikzeitung, (3), 15-17.
Das Engagement eines "Unpolitischen".
Walton Christopher (2017), Das Engagement eines "Unpolitischen"., in Schweizer Musikzeitung, 2017(4), 12-13.
Richard Flury - ein Schweizer Romantiker.
Walton Christopher (2017), Richard Flury - ein Schweizer Romantiker., Zentralbibliothek Solothurn, Solothurn.
Richard Flury - The Life and Music of a Swiss Romantic.
Walton Chris (2017), Richard Flury - The Life and Music of a Swiss Romantic., Toccata Press, London.
Hermann Hesse und Othmar Schoeck: Der Briefwechsel.
Walton Chris, Germann M. (2016), Hermann Hesse und Othmar Schoeck: Der Briefwechsel., Kulturkommission Kanton Schwyz, Schwyz.
Look & learn. Review of A. Whittall: The Wagner Style: close readings and critical perspectives.
Walton Chris (2016), Look & learn. Review of A. Whittall: The Wagner Style: close readings and critical perspectives., in The Musical Times, 157(1935), 112-113.
Mad mothers, fractious fathers and fractured cowbells: Richard Strauss reconsidered.
Walton Chris (2016), Mad mothers, fractious fathers and fractured cowbells: Richard Strauss reconsidered., in The Musical Time, 157(1934), 19-44.
Othmar Schoeck und der Besuch aus Porlock
WaltonChris (2016), Othmar Schoeck und der Besuch aus Porlock, in Schweizerische Musikzeitung, (7/8), 4-6.
Sexo no, gracias, somos alémanes.
Walton Chris (2016), Sexo no, gracias, somos alémanes., in Teatro Real Madrd (ed.), Eigenverlag, Madrid, 13-24.
The crafty art of opera.
Hampe Michael (2016), The crafty art of opera., The Boydell Press, Woodbridge.
Something of the night. Review of S. Muller: Nagemusiek.
Walton Chris (2015), Something of the night. Review of S. Muller: Nagemusiek., in The Musical Times, 156(1933), 116-118.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Royal Academy of Music, London Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Maestro: Conductors in Performance Talk given at a conference Taking liberties’. In this case study, Christoph Moor will exam the praxis of ‘retouching’, as practised by Richard Wagner in his annotated score of Mozart’s Symphony No. 41 (‘Jupiter’) 06.04.2019 Royal Academy of Music, London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Moor Christoph;
Maestro: Conductors in Performance Talk given at a conference Wagner: a Conducting Legacy’. In this presentation, Professor Chris Walton discusses how Richard Wagner influenced several generations of conductors, not only by the ways in which he rehearsed and conducted but, also, through his writings. 06.04.2019 Royal Academy of Music, London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Walton Chris;
Symposium Richard Wagner and his successors in the Austro-German conducting tradition Talk given at a conference Richard Wagner's Über das Dirigieren 1869 02.11.2018 Bern, Switzerland Walton Chris;
Symposium Richard Wagner and his successors in the Austro-German conducting tradition Talk given at a conference «Des weiteren – was weiss ich?» Das annotierte Orchestermaterial von Mozarts Jupite -Sinfonie der Allgemeinen Musikgesellschaft Zürich 02.11.2018 Bern, Switzerland Moor Christoph;
Tagung "Neoklassizismus - Was ist das?" Akademie Meran Talk given at a conference (K)ein Schauspiel für Götter. Busoni's impact on Swiss music from 1915 to 1920. 12.07.2018 Meran, Italy Walton Chris;
4. GSA-Forschungstag Talk given at a conference "Die Komponisten haben es uns damit schwer gemacht." Über die Praxis der Retusche bei Gustav Mahler und Bruno Walter am Beispiel Mozarts Jupiter-Sinfonie. 14.12.2017 Bern, Switzerland Moor Christoph;
Symposium "Rund um Beethoven. Interpretationsforschung heute" Talk given at a conference "Eine schöne Ehre für den Wiener Hof, dass mich der König in fremden Landen hören muss." Die Rezeptionsgeschichte der Jupiter-Sinfonie in Beethovens Wien. 13.09.2017 Bern, Switzerland Moor Christoph;
Symposium "Rund um Beethoven. Interpretationsforschung heute" Talk given at a conference Beethoven's Last, Wagner's First. 13.09.2017 Bern, Switzerland Walton Chris;
Africa Open Institute, University Stellenbosch Individual talk Kom ons maak'n plan! - Un-decolonising the South African University 10.03.2017 Stellenbosch, South Africa Walton Chris;
Symposium "Als Schweizer bin ich neutral". Schoecks Oper "Das Schloss Dürande" und ihr Umfeld. Talk given at a conference Farbe bekennen: Der Opernkomponist Heinrich Sutermeister. 11.09.2016 Brunnen, Switzerland Walton Chris;
Symposium "Als Schweizer bin ich neutral". Schoecks Oper "Das Schloss Dürande" und ihr Umfeld. Talk given at a conference Podiumsgespräch: Verdammen, vergeben, verdrängen, verfremden? Ein Gespräch über den Umgang mit kulturellen Werken der NS-Zeit. 11.09.2016 Brunnen, Switzerland Walton Chris;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) Programmbuch. Beethovenwoche 2020. Beethovens Kammermusik in einem Fest. BTHVN WOCHE, Bonn International 2020
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) Programmheft Teatro Real Madrid, Die Walküre, Chris Walton, 2020 International 2020
Talks/events/exhibitions Prof. Rayomond Holden & Students from the Royal Academy of Music and the HKB perform Mozart. International 2019
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) Programmheft Der fliegende Holländer, Chris Walton, Opera Bilbao International 2019
Talks/events/exhibitions Programmheft: Un holandés por los fiordos, Opera Bilbao International 2019
Media relations: print media, online media Die "Wagner-Schule" des Dirigierens Schweizer Musikzeitung German-speaking Switzerland 2018
Talks/events/exhibitions Konzert mit Einführung im Rahmen des Symposiums Richard Wagner, Bern 3.11.18 German-speaking Switzerland 2018
Talks/events/exhibitions Orchestra Workshop im Rahmen des Symposiums Richard Wagner, Bern 3.11.18 German-speaking Switzerland 2018
Talks/events/exhibitions Chris Walton über Richard Flury, Buchpräsentation und Konzert, 15.3.17, Buchhaus Lüthy Solothurn German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) Programmheft Royal Opera House: Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, 2017. International 2017
Talks/events/exhibitions Posterpräsentation Edirom Summer School Paderborn International 2016

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
190210 Rund um Beethoven. Interpretationsforschung heute 01.10.2019 Open Access Books
133729 "Die Idee des Componisten ins Leben zu rufen" - instruktive Notenausgaben als Basis für historisch orientierte Interpretationsforschung im Repertoire des 19. Jahrhunderts 01.08.2011 SNSF Professorships

Abstract

Richard Wagner published the first major treatise on conducting and interpretation in 1869, the result of his nearly forty years of conducting experience. His ideas on how to interpret the core Classical and early Romantic orchestral repertoire were declared the benchmark by subsequent generations of conductors. He was thus the originator of a conducting tradition by which those who came after him defined themselves and their art - starting with Wagner's student Hans von Bülow and progressing from him to Arthur Nikisch, Felix Weingartner, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, Wilhelm Furtwängler and beyond. No other conductor of the 19th century had any comparable impact.This research project into the interpretation of orchestral music in the late 19th and 20th centuries thus begins with Wagner as the acknowledged originator of the Austro-German tradition. This tradition can be said to have come to a definitive end only with the rise of historically informed performance practice ("HIPP") in the 1960s, with its declared endeavour to return to "authentic" performance practices of the pre-Romantic era. For this reason, the present project ends with the last generation before the emergence of HIPP. It thus stretches from roughly 1850 to 1970, offering us a more or less unified corpus of material from within a clearly identifiable tradition. Scholars of the history of conducting long concentrated on writings, reviews, editions and historical recordings for their information. But arguably the most significant body of source material remained ignored for many years: the scores and parts annotated by conductors for their own use in rehearsal and concert. Such materials were until recently not even collected and catalogued separately by libraries. The present project will investigate precisely these annotated performing materials in which conductors indicated how they intended to perform a work. These annotations can range from technical matters, such as bowing instructions, to dynamics, expression marks, tempo modifications and even verbal clues as to the desired interpretation. The project will focus on those works of the Classical and early Romantic canon that were the object of Wagner’s particular attention, and about which he left more or less detailed performing instructions. These are also works that have remained at the core of the orchestral repertoire since his time - Haydn’s Symphony No. 104, Mozart’s symphonies Nos. 39-41, Carl Maria von Weber’s overture to Der Freischütz and the symphonies Nos. 3, 5, 7 and 9 by Beethoven. The project will comprise two linked parts: one (by the applicant) will trace how the conducting precepts of Richard Wagner can be discerned in the annotated scores and interpretations of his successors, focussing on the abovementioned repertoire and examining its continuities and discontinuities; the other (by the doctoral candidate) will focus on a specific work, Mozart’s "Jupiter" Symphony, tracing the specifics of its interpretation during the chosen period and using it also as a means to compare the "Wagnerian" tradition with other extant and emerging traditions both inside and outside Central Europe. Both parts of the project will use annotated performing materials as their primary sources, but will also draw on contemporary texts such as reviews by contemporary music critics, instructive editions and historical recordings to complement and complete these sources where necessary.
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