Vowel; singer's formant cluster; Formants; Voice; actor's/speaker's formant cluster; Formant tuning; Acting; F0; Singing
Dellwo Volker, Kathiresan Thayabaran, Pellegrino Elisa, He Lei, Schwab Sandra, Maurer Dieter (2018), Influences of Fundamental Oscillation on Speaker Identification in Vocalic Utterances by Humans and Computers, in Interspeech 2018
, HyderabadInternational Speech Communication Association (ISCA), Hyderabard, India.
Kathiresan Thayabaran, Maurer Dieter, Suter Heidy, Dellwo Volker (2018), Formant pattern and spectral shape ambiguity in vowel synthesis: The role of fundamental frequency and formant amplitude, in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
, Minneapolis 143(3), 1919-1920, ASA, Melville, NY 143(3), 1919-1920.
Maurer Dieter, Suter Heidy, Kathiresan Thayabaran, Dellwo Volker (2018), Sinewave vowel sounds: The role of vowel qualities, frequencies and harmonicity of sinusoids, and perceived pitch for vowel recognition, in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
, Minneapolis 143(3), 1920-1920, ASA, Melville, NY 143(3), 1920-1920.
Maurer Dieter, d'Heureuse Christian, Suter Heidy, Dellwo Volker, Friedrichs Daniel, Kathiresan Thayabaran (2018), The Zurich Corpus of Vowel and Voice Quality, Version 1.0, in Interspeech
, Hyderabad1417-1421, International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), Hyderabard, India1417-1421.
MaurerDieter (2018), Why a phenomenology of vowel sounds is needed., in Proceedings of the Conference on Phonetics & Phonology in German-speaking countries
, BerlinHumboldt Universität Berlin, Berlin.
Maurer Dieter, Suter Heidy (2017), “Flat” vowel spectra revisited in vowel synthesis, in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
, Boston 141(5), 3469-3469, ASA, Melville, NY 141(5), 3469-3469.
Maurer Dieter, Dellwo Volker, Suter Heidy, Kathiresan Thayabaran (2017), Formant pattern ambiguity of vowel sounds revisited in synthesis: Changing perceptual vowel quality by only changing fundamental frequency, in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
, Boston 141(5), 3469-3470, ASA, Melville, NY 141(5), 3469-3470.
Maurer Dieter, Suter Heidy (2017), Vowel synthesis related to equal-amplitude harmonic series in frequency ranges > 1 kHz combined with single harmonics < 1 kHz, and including variation of fundamental frequency, in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
, Boston 141(5), 3469-3469, ASA, Melville, NY 141(5), 3469-3469.
Kathiresan Thayabaran, Maurer Dieter, Dellwo Volker (2017), Enhancing the objectivity of interactive formant estimation: introducing euclidean distance measure and numerical conditions for numbers and frequency ranges of formants, in Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung 2017
, (86), 130-137, TUDpress, Saarbrücken(86), 130-137.
Friedrichs Daniel, Maurer Dieter, Rosen Stuart, Dellwo Volker (2017), Vowel recognition at fundamental frequencies up to 1 kHz reveals point vowels as acoustic landmarks, in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
, 142(2), 1025-1033.
Kathiresan Thayabaran, Maurer Dieter, Dellwo Volker (2016), Automatic selection of the number of poles for different gender and age groups in steady-state isolated vowels, in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
, Honolulu 140(4), 3058-3058, ASA, Melville, NY 140(4), 3058-3058.
Maurer Dieter, Kathiresan Thayabaran, Suter Heidy, Dellwo Volker (2016), How listeners recognise vowel sounds under highpass or lowpass filtering of vowel-specific frequency ranges, in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
, Honolulu 140(4), 3217-3217, ASA, Melville, NY 140(4), 3217-3217.
Friedrichs Daniel, Rosen Stuart, Iverson Paul, Maurer Dieter, Dellwo Volker (2016), Mapping vowel categories at high fundamental frequencies using multidimensional scaling of cochlea-scaled spectra, in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
, Honolulu 140(4), 3219-3219, ASA, Melville, NY 140(4), 3219-3219.
Maurer Dieter (2016), Acoustics of the Vowel
, Peter Lang AG, Bern.
MaurerDieter, KathiresanThayabaran, SuterHeidy, DellwoVolker (2016), Vowel sounds produced with varying production parameters: Conceptualisation and realisation of a database, in 25th Annual Conference of the Internatioal Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics
, YorkUniversity of York, York.
Ongoing project and first results: In an ongoing 2-year SNSF project, major style-specific aspects of the acoustics of stage voices are re-examined: extensive pitch variation and formant tuning, increased intensity in mid and high spectral ranges, singer’s or speaker’s/actor’s formant cluster (hereafter SF or SPF). Extensive and systematic recor-dings include utterances of 42 professional singers, actresses/actors, and non-professional speakers. Sounds of the long German vowels /i, y, e, ø, ?, a, o, u/ in V, sVsV, and minimal pair condition are investigated with varying basic production parameters such as pitch, vocal effort, production style, and phonation type. Additional references for “average” conversational speech are also created. Acoustic analysis (single sounds) and statistical analysis (sound samples) are conducted. Perceptual vowel quality is investigated in listening tests. In total, a corpus of more than 30'000 utterances of 42 speakers is created in order to build up an empirical reference on the matter.Up to now, our analyses provide strong indications for the following: (1) Possible vowel discrimination on high pitches up to F0 of c. 880Hz. Neither spectral undersampling nor “oversinging” statistical F1 is found to directly impair vowel discrimination. (2) Depending on vowels and F0 ranges, lower spectral peaks and, if determinable, related formants < 1.5kHz shift with rising F0. These shifts are found for both professionals and non-professionals, and a substantial part of them are indicated to maintaining the perceived vowel quality. (3) Speaker group differences in the vowel spectra < 1.5kHz decrease or disappear when comparing sounds at similar F0 levels. (4) Visual inspection of the spectra in general confirm reported findings in the literature of increased intensity in mid and high spectral ranges and SF for professionals. However, methods of acoustic analysis need further investiga-tion. Moreover, the effect of these acoustic characteristics on vowel perception is also in question. (5) No robust evidence for SPF was found, which may be due to the recording procedure applied.Need for clarification: On the basis of these indications, major aspects of stage-specific as well as of general voice production and perception have to be addressed: Firstly, for a clarification of phoneme and text intelligibility on high pitches, additional recordings of comic and voice-over actresses/actors are needed. Secondly, clarification of the observed F0-dependence of lower spectral characteristics (of importance for the concept of formant tuning) requires resynthesis and high-pass filtering experiments. The same holds true for the clarification of speaker group differences. Thirdly, the relation between F0-dependent changes of vowel-specific spectral characteristics and articulation should be clarified requiring a parallel investigation of sound production and imaging of the vocal tract or measurement of its resonances, respectively. Fourthly, the relation between F0-dependent changes of vowel-specific spectral characteristics and cortical representation should also be clarified. Fifthly, the acoustic effect of the levels of spectral intensity of different frequency bands and the shaping of the spectral envelope > 2.5kHz needs to be clarified requiring additional recordings live on stage, including additional investigation of SPF.The present follow-up project addresses these issues within the following experiments: Additional recor-dings (in the studio and live on stage in a large concert hall); vowel synthesis (related to statistical formant patterns) and resynthesis (related to natural vocalisations) with extensive F0 variation, testing constancy/alteration of vowel perception; vocal tract investigation (with MRI, with vocal tract resonance measurement), testing the parallelism between vowel-specific spectral characteristics of sounds produced on very different F0 and articulation; investiga-tion of cortical vowel representation (with EEG), testing constancy/alteration of the representation for vowel sounds on very different F0.-Listening tests are included in all experiments.-Great effort is also made for an extensive open access publication (entire sound database and eBook).-Improvement of the methods of acoustic analysis for sounds on high pitches is attempted for in the ongoing project.The empirical basis provided-unique in its systemacy and extension-and the clarifications attempted will allow for in-depth insight into the acoustics of stage voices, into general aspects of vowel acoustics, and into some important and related aspects of production, perception, and cortical processes, indispensable for further research and for an assessment of the relevance of acoustical descriptions for vocal education and the use of technical aids on stage.