connectivity; water quality; temporary streams; spatial patterns; runoff generation; headwater catchment; channel network
van Meerveld H. J. Ilja, Kirchner James W., Vis Marc J. P., Assendelft Rick S., Seibert Jan (2019), Expansion and contraction of the flowing stream network alter hillslope flowpath lengths and the shape of the travel time distribution, in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
, 23(11), 4825-4834.
Assendelft Rick, van Meerveld H. J. (2019), A Low-Cost, Multi-Sensor System to Monitor Temporary Stream Dynamics in Mountainous Headwater Catchments, in Sensors
, 19(21), 4645-4645.
||Assendelft, Rick; van Meerveld, Ilja
|Persistent Identifier (PID)
The data set includes:*) Mapped_networks.shp: Shapefile with mapped stream networks in the upper Studibach catchment (Alptal, Switzerland) for three different dates (columns in the attribute table, yyyy_mm_dd): Aug 21, 2018: Extremely dry conditions Nov 2, 2016: Dry conditions Oct. 25, 2016: Wetting-up conditions (during a low intensity rainfall event)The stream state was classified as: Dry streambed Standing water Weakly trickling Trickling Weakly flowing Flowing*) Topo_network.shp: The stream network shown on the topographic map (derived from the Federal Office of Topography (Swisstopo) National Map 1:25,000 (Pixelkarte 25))*) Boundary.shp: The catchment boundaries
The supplementary material of the publication contains the:*) 3D-print object: Housing for the float switch sensor*) 3D- print object: Platform for the float switch sensor*) 3D-print object: Pipe fitting for the flow sensor*) Operating program for the multi-sensor monitoring system
Temporary streams are very common, also in humid climates, and often represent a substantial portion of total stream length. However, temporary streams are generally not included in stream monitoring networks and hydrologists have, so far, largely ignored them. As a result, little is known about the hydrological responses of temporary streams and the factors that control the occurrence of flow in temporary streams. Connectivity of previously disconnected stream segments can result in sudden increases in streamflow and significantly alter stream water quality in downstream perennial streams. For the latter, it is especially important to note that organic material and other substances that might have accumulated in the channel during periods of no flow, might be flushed out at the onset of flow in temporary streams, causing a water chemistry dynamic that is different from that of constantly flowing streams. It is thus important to study how and when connectivity between flowing sections of the stream network is established and what controls the occurrence of flow in temporary streams. The overall aim of the proposed research is to explore these ‘aqua temporaria incognita’. This will provide a better understanding of temporary streams and their importance for spatial and temporal variations in runoff and stream water quality in headwater catchments. This will be done by detailed field experiments in two pre-Alpine headwater catchments. We will map the presence of flowing water in temporary streams using an array of low costs sensors, time-lapse cameras and traditional mapping techniques to study how connectivity of flowing stream reaches is established and what topographic and landscape factors control the occurrence of flow seasonally and during different events. We will use the occurrence of flow in the stream network as an indicator of subsurface flow and hillslope-stream connectivity in order to better understand the precipitation and groundwater level thresholds that control runoff generation. This is a novel way to obtain information on the spatial variability of the temporal controls on subsurface flow generation. Finally, by monitoring the onset of flow and connectivity of stream reaches and simultaneous sampling of water chemistry in temporary streams during events, we will determine how connectivity of the temporary stream network affects downstream water quality.