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Variability of Solar Irradiance and its implications on the terrestrial middle atmosphere

English title Variability of Solar Irradiance and its implications on the terrestrial middle atmosphere
Applicant Schmutz Werner
Number 153302
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos und Weltstrahlungszentrum
Institution of higher education Physikal.-Meteorolog. Observatorium Davos - PMOD
Main discipline Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Start/End 01.04.2014 - 31.03.2016
Approved amount 347'110.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy

Keywords (6)

solar chromospere; sun-climate connection; terrestrial middle atmosphere; solar irradiance; solar physics; solar corona

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Forschung am Physikalisch-Meteorologischen Observatorium Davos und Weltstrahlungszentrum (PMOD/WRC) ist mit Sonnenstrahlung in allen Aspekten verbunden: Das PMOD/WRC entwickelt und baut Radiometer, die zu den weltweit genauesten ihrer Art geho¨ren und sowohl am Boden als auch im Weltraum eingesetzt werden. Diese Instrumente werden auch zum Kauf angeboten und kommen seit langem bei Meteorologischen Diensten weltweit zum Einsatz. Ein globales Netzwerk von Stationen zur U¨berwachung der atmospha¨rischen Tru¨bung ist mit vom Institut entwickelten Pra¨zisionsfilterradiometern ausgeru¨stet. Im Weltraum und mittels Bodenmessungen gewonnene Daten werden in Forschungsprojekten zum Klimawandel und der Sonnenphysik analysiert. Diese Forschungsta¨tigkeit ist in nationale, insbesondere mit der ETH Zu¨rich, und internationale Zusammenarbeit eingebunden.
Lay summary

Die in diesem Projekt verfolgten Projekte dienen dem Verständnis des Einflusses der Sonne auf das Erdklima. Insbesondere ist es von besonderem Interesse, dass die Sonne selbst in ihrer Leuchtkraft variabel ist. Die Sonnenphysik am PMOD/WRC hat daher zum Ziel, die Variationen der Sonnenstrahlung möglichst genau zu erfassen, insbesondere im Ultravioletten Teil des Spektrums, da dieses besonders starken Einfluss auf das Erdklima hat.

Das Forschungsprojekt ist in drei Unterprojekte aufgeteilt:

  1. Betreuung der laufenden Weltraumprojekte des PMOD/WRC, d.h. von VIRGO auf der ESA Mission SOHO, von LYRA auf dem Satelliten PROBA2 und von PREMOS auf PICARD. Die französische Mission PICARD ist Ende März 2014 ausgeschalten worden aber die Aufarbeitung und Publikation der Daten ist noch nicht abgeschlossen.
  2. Wissenschaftliche Vorbereitung auf kommende Beobachtungen mit der im Bau befindlichen ESA Mission Solar Orbiter, die 2017 gestartet wird. Das PMOD/WRC baut Hardware-Komponenten für zwei Experimente dieser Mission, EUI und SPICE, und wird dafür direkten Zugang zu den Messdaten bekommen. Um die zukünftigen Beobachtungen optimal interpretieren zu können, untersuchen wir magnetohydrodynamischen Simulationen der Sonne, die wir von der Gruppe von Prof. M. Carlsson der Universität Oslo erhalten. Basierend auf den Simulationen können wir schon heute mit der zukünftigen räumlichen Auflösung der Sonnenmission nach beobachtbaren Signaturen von gewissen physikalischen Prozessen suchen. Ziel ist es den Beitrag des Magnetfelds zur Heizung der Sonnenkorona zu quantifizieren.
  3. Wissenschaftliche Auswertung von Daten der PMOD/WRC Weltraumexperimente LYRA/PROBA2 und PREMOS/PICARD. Wir untersuchen mit Klimamodellen die Veränderung der Erdatmosphäre, insbesondere der Stratosphäre, auf die variable solare Einstrahlung, wie sie mit den mit den Experimenten gemessenen wurde. Ziel ist es die Sonne-Erde-Beziehung als Gesamtsystem zu verstehen.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 02.07.2014

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Atmospheric impacts of the strongest known solar particle storm of 775 AD
Sukhodolov Timofei, Usoskin Ilya, Rozanov Eugene, Asvestari Eleanna, Ball William T., Curran Mark A. J., Fischer Hubertus, Kovaltsov Gennady, Miyake Fusa, Peter Thomas, Plummer Christopher, Schmutz Werner, Severi Mirko, Traversi Rita (2017), Atmospheric impacts of the strongest known solar particle storm of 775 AD, in Scientific Reports, 7, 45257-45257.
Modeling of the middle atmosphere response to 27-day solar irradiance variability
Sukhodolov Timofei, Rozanov Eugene, Ball William T., Peter Thomas, Schmutz Werner (2017), Modeling of the middle atmosphere response to 27-day solar irradiance variability, in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 152-153, 50-61.
A mid-latitude stratosphere dynamical index for attribution of stratospheric variability and improved ozone and temperature trend analysis
Ball William T., Kuchař Aleš, Rozanov Eugene V., Staehelin Johannes, Tummon Fiona, Smith Anne K., Sukhodolov Timofei, Stenke Andrea, Revell Laura, Coulon Ancelin, Schmutz Werner, Peter Thomas (2016), A mid-latitude stratosphere dynamical index for attribution of stratospheric variability and improved ozone and temperature trend analysis, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 1-20.
An upper-branch Brewer–Dobson circulation index for attribution of stratospheric variability and improved ozone and temperature trend analysis
Ball William T., Kuchař Aleš, Rozanov Eugene V., Staehelin Johannes, Tummon Fiona, Smith Anne K., Sukhodolov Timofei, Stenke Andrea, Revell Laura, Coulon Ancelin, Schmutz Werner, Peter Thomas (2016), An upper-branch Brewer–Dobson circulation index for attribution of stratospheric variability and improved ozone and temperature trend analysis, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(24), 15485-15500.
Determination of time-dependent uncertainty of the total solar irradiance records from 1978 to present
Fröhlich Claus (2016), Determination of time-dependent uncertainty of the total solar irradiance records from 1978 to present, in JSWSC, 6, A18-A18-p11.
High solar cycle spectral variations inconsistent with stratospheric ozone observations
Ball W. T., Haigh J. D., Rozanov E. V., Kuchar A., Sukhodolov T., Tummon F., Shapiro A. V., Schmutz W. (2016), High solar cycle spectral variations inconsistent with stratospheric ozone observations, in Nature Geoscience, 9(3), 206-209.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CORONAL HEATING THROUGH FOOTPOINT BRAIDING
Hansteen V., Guerreiro N., Pontieu B. De, Carlsson M. (2015), NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CORONAL HEATING THROUGH FOOTPOINT BRAIDING, in The Astrophysical Journal, 811(2), 106-106.
SMALL-SCALE HEATING EVENTS IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE. I. IDENTIFICATION, SELECTION, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING
Guerreiro N., Haberreiter M., Hansteen V., Schmutz W. (2015), SMALL-SCALE HEATING EVENTS IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE. I. IDENTIFICATION, SELECTION, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING, in Jo, 813(1), 61-61.
Evaluation of the ECHAM family radiation codes performance in the representation of the solar signal
Sukhodolov T., Rozanov E., Shapiro A. I., Anet J., Cagnazzo C., Peter T., Schmutz W. (2014), Evaluation of the ECHAM family radiation codes performance in the representation of the solar signal, in Geoscientific Model Development, 7(6), 2859-2866.
The PICARD Scientific Mission: status of the program
Rouze M., Hauchecorne A., Hochedez J.F., Irbah A., Meftah M., Corbard T., Turck-Chieze S., Boumier P., Dewitte S., Schmutz W. (2014), The PICARD Scientific Mission: status of the program, in 13th International Conference on Space Operations 5-9 May 2014, Pasadena, CAAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA USA.
Assessing the beginning to end-of-mission sensitivity change of the PREcision MOnitor Sensor total solar irradiance radiometer (PREMOS/PICARD)
Ball William T., Schmutz Werner, Fehlmann André, Finsterle Wolfgang, Walter Benjamin, Assessing the beginning to end-of-mission sensitivity change of the PREcision MOnitor Sensor total solar irradiance radiometer (PREMOS/PICARD), in Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate.
Evaluation of the simulated photolysis rates and their response to solar irradiance variabilityMiddle atm. photolysis rate modelling
Sukhodolov Timofei, Rozanov Eugene, Ball William, Bais Alkiviadis, Tourpali Kleareti, Shapiro Alexander, Telford Paul, Smyshlyaev Sergey, Fomin Boris, Sander Rolf, Bossay Sébastien, Bekki Slimane, Marchand Marion, Chipperfield Martyn P., Dhomse Sandip, Haigh Joanna D., Peter Thomas, Schmutz Werner, Evaluation of the simulated photolysis rates and their response to solar irradiance variabilityMiddle atm. photolysis rate modelling, in Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
IAC ETH-ZH, Prof. Dr. Thomas Peter Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Dr. Werner Curdt Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
EMPA, Prof. Dr. Jürg Beer Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
CNES space projects France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Uni BE Institute of Geography, PD Dr. Chrisoph Raible Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
ETH.ZH, Inst. of Astronomy, Prof. Dr. Marcella Carollo ETH-ZH Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
NASA space projects United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Prof. Dr. Viggo Hansteen Norway (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
ESA space projects France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Uni BE Oeschger Center, Prof. Dr. Stefan Brönnimann Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Awards

Title Year
International Kristian Birkeland Medal for space weather and space climate 2015

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
130642 Future and Past Solar Influence on the Terrestrial Climate 01.09.2010 Sinergia
182239 Past and future of the Ozone Layer Evolution (POLE) 01.01.2019 Project funding (Div. I-III)
163206 Study to determine Spectral Solar Irradiance and its impact on the middle atmosphere (SIMA) 01.10.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)
169647 NLTE calculations of the Solar Spectrum with Cross-Influence of Solar Atmospheric Structures. II Validation and Application 01.01.2017 Project funding (Div. I-III)
157099 NLTE calculations of the Solar Spectrum with Cross-Influence of Solar Atmospheric Structures 01.01.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)
140573 Seismology of the Sun, Variability of Solar Irradiance, and its implications on the terrestrial middle atmosphere 01.04.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)
140573 Seismology of the Sun, Variability of Solar Irradiance, and its implications on the terrestrial middle atmosphere 01.04.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)
147659 Future and Past Solar Influence on the Terrestrial Climate II 01.01.2014 Sinergia
132520 Swiss Solar Radio Flux Monitor: Technology demonstration and physical understaning of the solar irradiance at radio frequencies 01.09.2011 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Research at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center, PMOD/WRC, is connected to solar radiation in all aspects: From manufacturing space and ground based instruments that measure radiation to the interpretation of the influence of solar radiation on the terrestrial radiation energy budget. The here proposed research projects are aimed at understanding the influence of the Sun on the terrestrial climate. From the point of view of the space-based research, the most interesting aspect is that the radiance output of the Sun itself is variable. The goal of solar physics research at PMOD/WRC is therefore, to measure these variations, in particular in the UV and EUV, to advance our understanding of the origin of these variations, and to evaluate the impact of the solar variability on the terrestrial climate.This proposal asks for a continuation of the long-term SNSF support of the exploitation of measurements obtained by space experiments that have been built at PMD/WRC. The proposal comprises three subprojects:A) Quality assurance and calibration of the measurement from active space experiments. The oldest still active space experiment, VIRGO on SoHO, was launched in 1995. PROBA2 with our experiment LYRA started 2. November 2009, and the launch of PICARD with our experiment PREMOS occurred 27. June 2010. Thus, the PMOD/WRC takes care of three PMOD/WRC experiments that will continue to be operational during the funding period of this proposal. We ask for travel funding to support the operation of the experiments and the dissemination of the data at international conferences;B) Preparation for scientific exploitation of Solar Orbiter/SPICE and EUI observations. The involvement of the PMOD/WRC in building hardware for the Solar Orbiter experiments EUI and SPICE implies that research at PMOD/WRC has to re-focus on the solar corona. We use existing MHD simulations provided by the group of Prof. Carlsson from the University of Oslo, to calculate the emergent EUV line fluxes from the MHD model simulations. We will compare the results to SUMER/SoHO observations, which has a EUV line coverage that addresses the same physical processes as will be done by SPICE on Solar Orbiter, except that the latter will have a much better spatial resolution. We aim at understanding the role of the magnetic field on the frequency and characteristics of small heating events and we will evaluate the contribution of the small heating events to the heating of the corona;C) Scientific exploitation of LYRA/PROBA2 and PREMOS/PICARD data. The first step of subproject C is to improve the modules that are relevant to the response of the middle atmosphere to solar UV variability and in addition, we will replace the present GCM model core ECHAM-5 and adapt the newly available ECHAM-6. The new model version will be used to simulate the response of the middle atmosphere to intensive short-term solar UV perturbations as well as to the variability of SSI during solar rotation cycles. The model results will be compared to data from Earth observing satellites in order to understand the processes that are responsible for the solar influence on the middle atmosphere and to elucidate the role of different atmospheric variability modes on solar rotation time scale and solar cycle time scale.
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